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4HTTPbis Working Group                                   R. Fielding, Ed.
5Internet-Draft                                              Day Software
6Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved)                                  J. Gettys
7Intended status: Standards Track                    One Laptop per Child
8Expires: April 29, 2010                                         J. Mogul
9                                                                      HP
10                                                              H. Frystyk
11                                                               Microsoft
12                                                             L. Masinter
13                                                           Adobe Systems
14                                                                P. Leach
15                                                               Microsoft
16                                                          T. Berners-Lee
17                                                                 W3C/MIT
18                                                           Y. Lafon, Ed.
19                                                                     W3C
20                                                         J. Reschke, Ed.
21                                                              greenbytes
22                                                        October 26, 2009
23
24
25         HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses
26                     draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-08
27
28Status of this Memo
29
30   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
31   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  This document may contain material
32   from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly
33   available before November 10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the
34   copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF
35   Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the
36   IETF Standards Process.  Without obtaining an adequate license from
37   the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this
38   document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and
39   derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards
40   Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to
41   translate it into languages other than English.
42
43   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
44   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
45   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
46   Drafts.
47
48   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
49   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
50   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
51   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
52
53
54
55Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                 [Page 1]
56
57Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
58
59
60   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
61   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
62
63   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
64   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
65
66   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 29, 2010.
67
68Copyright Notice
69
70   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
71   document authors.  All rights reserved.
72
73   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
74   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
75   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
76   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
77   and restrictions with respect to this document.
78
79Abstract
80
81   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
82   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
83   systems.  HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global
84   information initiative since 1990.  This document is Part 5 of the
85   seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as
86   "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 5 defines
87   range-specific requests and the rules for constructing and combining
88   responses to those requests.
89
90Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)
91
92   Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working
93   group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org).  The current issues list is
94   at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11> and related
95   documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
96   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>.
97
98   The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix D.9.
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                 [Page 2]
112
113Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
114
115
116Table of Contents
117
118   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
119     1.1.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
120     1.2.  Syntax Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
121       1.2.1.  Core Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
122       1.2.2.  ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the
123               Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
124   2.  Range Units  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
125   3.  Status Code Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
126     3.1.  206 Partial Content  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
127     3.2.  416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable  . . . . . . . . . . .  6
128   4.  Combining Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
129   5.  Header Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
130     5.1.  Accept-Ranges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
131     5.2.  Content-Range  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
132     5.3.  If-Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
133     5.4.  Range  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
134       5.4.1.  Byte Ranges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
135       5.4.2.  Range Retrieval Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
136   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
137     6.1.  Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
138     6.2.  Message Header Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
139   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
140   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
141   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
142     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
143     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
144   Appendix A.  Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges  . . . . . . 16
145   Appendix B.  Compatibility with Previous Versions  . . . . . . . . 18
146     B.1.  Changes from RFC 2068  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
147     B.2.  Changes from RFC 2616  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
148   Appendix C.  Collected ABNF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
149   Appendix D.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
150                publication)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
151     D.1.  Since RFC2616  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
152     D.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00 . . . . . . . . . . . 21
153     D.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 21
154     D.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 21
155     D.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 21
156     D.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04 . . . . . . . . . . . 21
157     D.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05 . . . . . . . . . . . 22
158     D.8.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06 . . . . . . . . . . . 22
159     D.9.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07 . . . . . . . . . . . 22
160   Index  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
161   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
162
163
164
165
166
167Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                 [Page 3]
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169Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
170
171
1721.  Introduction
173
174   HTTP clients often encounter interrupted data transfers as a result
175   of cancelled requests or dropped connections.  When a cache has
176   stored a partial representation, it is desirable to request the
177   remainder of that representation in a subsequent request rather than
178   transfer the entire representation.  There are also a number of Web
179   applications that benefit from being able to request only a subset of
180   a larger representation, such as a single page of a very large
181   document or only part of an image to be rendered by a device with
182   limited local storage.
183
184   This document defines HTTP/1.1 range requests, partial responses, and
185   the multipart/byteranges media type.  The protocol for range requests
186   is an OPTIONAL feature of HTTP, designed so resources or recipients
187   that do not implement this feature can respond as if it is a normal
188   GET request without impacting interoperability.  Partial responses
189   are indicated by a distinct status code to not be mistaken for full
190   responses by intermediate caches that might not implement the
191   feature.
192
193   Although the HTTP range request mechanism is designed to allow for
194   extensible range types, this specification only defines requests for
195   byte ranges.
196
1971.1.  Requirements
198
199   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
200   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
201   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
202
203   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
204   of the MUST or REQUIRED level requirements for the protocols it
205   implements.  An implementation that satisfies all the MUST or
206   REQUIRED level and all the SHOULD level requirements for its
207   protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that
208   satisfies all the MUST level requirements but not all the SHOULD
209   level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally
210   compliant."
211
2121.2.  Syntax Notation
213
214   This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in Section 1.2 of
215   [Part1] (which extends the syntax defined in [RFC5234] with a list
216   rule).  Appendix C shows the collected ABNF, with the list rule
217   expanded.
218
219   The following core rules are included by reference, as defined in
220
221
222
223Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                 [Page 4]
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225Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
226
227
228   [RFC5234], Appendix B.1: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF
229   (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
230   HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit
231   sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
232   and WSP (whitespace).
233
2341.2.1.  Core Rules
235
236   The core rules below are defined in Section 1.2.2 of [Part1]:
237
238     token      = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
239     OWS        = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
240
2411.2.2.  ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification
242
243   The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
244
245     HTTP-date  = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part1], Section 6.1>
246
247
248     entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2>
249
250
2512.  Range Units
252
253   HTTP/1.1 allows a client to request that only part (a range of) the
254   response entity be included within the response.  HTTP/1.1 uses range
255   units in the Range (Section 5.4) and Content-Range (Section 5.2)
256   header fields.  An entity can be broken down into subranges according
257   to various structural units.
258
259     range-unit       = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
260     bytes-unit       = "bytes"
261     other-range-unit = token
262
263   HTTP/1.1 has been designed to allow implementations of applications
264   that do not depend on knowledge of ranges.  The only range unit
265   defined by HTTP/1.1 is "bytes".
266
267   If a range unit is not understood in a request, a server MUST ignore
268   the whole Range header (Section 5.4).  If a range unit is not
269   understood in a response, an intermediary SHOULD pass the response to
270   the client; a client MUST fail.
271
272
2733.  Status Code Definitions
274
275
276
277
278
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283
2843.1.  206 Partial Content
285
286   The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource.
287   The request MUST have included a Range header field (Section 5.4)
288   indicating the desired range, and MAY have included an If-Range
289   header field (Section 5.3) to make the request conditional.
290
291   The response MUST include the following header fields:
292
293   o  Either a Content-Range header field (Section 5.2) indicating the
294      range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges
295      Content-Type including Content-Range fields for each part.  If a
296      Content-Length header field is present in the response, its value
297      MUST match the actual number of OCTETs transmitted in the message-
298      body.
299
300   o  Date
301
302   o  ETag and/or Content-Location, if the header would have been sent
303      in a 200 response to the same request
304
305   o  Expires, Cache-Control, and/or Vary, if the field-value might
306      differ from that sent in any previous response for the same
307      variant
308
309   If the 206 response is the result of an If-Range request, the
310   response SHOULD NOT include other entity-headers.  Otherwise, the
311   response MUST include all of the entity-headers that would have been
312   returned with a 200 (OK) response to the same request.
313
314   A cache MUST NOT combine a 206 response with other previously cached
315   content if the ETag or Last-Modified headers do not match exactly,
316   see Section 4.
317
318   A cache that does not support the Range and Content-Range headers
319   MUST NOT cache 206 (Partial Content) responses.  Furthermore, if a
320   response uses a range unit that is not understood by the cache, then
321   it MUST NOT be cached either.
322
3233.2.  416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
324
325   A server SHOULD return a response with this status code if a request
326   included a Range request-header field (Section 5.4), and none of the
327   ranges-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of
328   the selected resource, and the request did not include an If-Range
329   request-header field.  (For byte-ranges, this means that the first-
330   byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the
331   current length of the selected resource.)
332
333
334
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337Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
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339
340   When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the
341   response SHOULD include a Content-Range entity-header field
342   specifying the current length of the selected resource (see
343   Section 5.2).  This response MUST NOT use the multipart/byteranges
344   content-type.
345
346
3474.  Combining Ranges
348
349   A response might transfer only a subrange of an entity-body, either
350   the request included one or more Range specifications, or because a
351   connection was broken prematurely.  After several such transfers, a
352   cache might have received several ranges of the same entity-body.
353
354   If a cache has a stored non-empty set of subranges for an entity, and
355   an incoming response transfers another subrange, the cache MAY
356   combine the new subrange with the existing set if both the following
357   conditions are met:
358
359   o  Both the incoming response and the cache entry have a cache
360      validator.
361
362   o  The two cache validators match using the strong comparison
363      function (see Section 4 of [Part4]).
364
365   If either requirement is not met, the cache MUST use only the most
366   recent partial response (based on the Date values transmitted with
367   every response, and using the incoming response if these values are
368   equal or missing), and MUST discard the other partial information.
369
370
3715.  Header Field Definitions
372
373   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header
374   fields related to range requests and partial responses.
375
376   For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either
377   the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the
378   entity.
379
3805.1.  Accept-Ranges
381
382   The "Accept-Ranges" response-header field allows a resource to
383   indicate its acceptance of range requests.
384
385     Accept-Ranges     = "Accept-Ranges" ":" OWS Accept-Ranges-v
386     Accept-Ranges-v   = acceptable-ranges
387     acceptable-ranges = 1#range-unit / "none"
388
389
390
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393Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
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395
396   Origin servers that accept byte-range requests MAY send
397
398     Accept-Ranges: bytes
399
400   but are not required to do so.  Clients MAY generate range requests
401   without having received this header for the resource involved.  Range
402   units are defined in Section 2.
403
404   Servers that do not accept any kind of range request for a resource
405   MAY send
406
407     Accept-Ranges: none
408
409   to advise the client not to attempt a range request.
410
4115.2.  Content-Range
412
413   The "Content-Range" entity-header field is sent with a partial
414   entity-body to specify where in the full entity-body the partial body
415   should be applied.  Range units are defined in Section 2.
416
417     Content-Range = "Content-Range" ":" OWS Content-Range-v
418     Content-Range-v = content-range-spec
419
420     content-range-spec      = byte-content-range-spec
421                             / other-content-range-spec
422     byte-content-range-spec = bytes-unit SP
423                               byte-range-resp-spec "/"
424                               ( instance-length / "*" )
425
426     byte-range-resp-spec    = (first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos)
427                             / "*"
428
429     instance-length         = 1*DIGIT
430
431     other-content-range-spec = other-range-unit SP
432                                other-range-resp-spec
433     other-range-resp-spec    = *CHAR
434
435   The header SHOULD indicate the total length of the full entity-body,
436   unless this length is unknown or difficult to determine.  The
437   asterisk "*" character means that the instance-length is unknown at
438   the time when the response was generated.
439
440   Unlike byte-ranges-specifier values (see Section 5.4.1), a byte-
441   range-resp-spec MUST only specify one range, and MUST contain
442   absolute byte positions for both the first and last byte of the
443   range.
444
445
446
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451
452   A byte-content-range-spec with a byte-range-resp-spec whose last-
453   byte-pos value is less than its first-byte-pos value, or whose
454   instance-length value is less than or equal to its last-byte-pos
455   value, is invalid.  The recipient of an invalid byte-content-range-
456   spec MUST ignore it and any content transferred along with it.
457
458   In the case of a byte range request: A server sending a response with
459   status code 416 (Requested range not satisfiable) SHOULD include a
460   Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".  The
461   instance-length specifies the current length of the selected
462   resource.  A response with status code 206 (Partial Content) MUST NOT
463   include a Content-Range field with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*".
464
465   Examples of byte-content-range-spec values, assuming that the entity
466   contains a total of 1234 bytes:
467
468   o  The first 500 bytes:
469
470        bytes 0-499/1234
471
472   o  The second 500 bytes:
473
474        bytes 500-999/1234
475
476   o  All except for the first 500 bytes:
477
478        bytes 500-1233/1234
479
480   o  The last 500 bytes:
481
482        bytes 734-1233/1234
483
484   When an HTTP message includes the content of a single range (for
485   example, a response to a request for a single range, or to a request
486   for a set of ranges that overlap without any holes), this content is
487   transmitted with a Content-Range header, and a Content-Length header
488   showing the number of bytes actually transferred.  For example,
489
490     HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
491     Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
492     Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
493     Content-Range: bytes 21010-47021/47022
494     Content-Length: 26012
495     Content-Type: image/gif
496
497   When an HTTP message includes the content of multiple ranges (for
498   example, a response to a request for multiple non-overlapping
499   ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message.  The multipart
500
501
502
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506
507
508   media type used for this purpose is "multipart/byteranges" as defined
509   in Appendix A.  See Appendix B.1 for a compatibility issue.
510
511   A response to a request for a single range MUST NOT be sent using the
512   multipart/byteranges media type.  A response to a request for
513   multiple ranges, whose result is a single range, MAY be sent as a
514   multipart/byteranges media type with one part.  A client that cannot
515   decode a multipart/byteranges message MUST NOT ask for multiple
516   ranges in a single request.
517
518   When a client requests multiple ranges in one request, the server
519   SHOULD return them in the order that they appeared in the request.
520
521   If the server ignores a byte-range-spec because it is syntactically
522   invalid, the server SHOULD treat the request as if the invalid Range
523   header field did not exist.  (Normally, this means return a 200
524   response containing the full entity).
525
526   If the server receives a request (other than one including an If-
527   Range request-header field) with an unsatisfiable Range request-
528   header field (that is, all of whose byte-range-spec values have a
529   first-byte-pos value greater than the current length of the selected
530   resource), it SHOULD return a response code of 416 (Requested range
531   not satisfiable) (Section 3.2).
532
533      Note: clients cannot depend on servers to send a 416 (Requested
534      range not satisfiable) response instead of a 200 (OK) response for
535      an unsatisfiable Range request-header, since not all servers
536      implement this request-header.
537
5385.3.  If-Range
539
540   If a client has a partial copy of an entity in its cache, and wishes
541   to have an up-to-date copy of the entire entity in its cache, it
542   could use the Range request-header with a conditional GET (using
543   either or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match.)  However, if the
544   condition fails because the entity has been modified, the client
545   would then have to make a second request to obtain the entire current
546   entity-body.
547
548   The "If-Range" request-header field allows a client to "short-
549   circuit" the second request.  Informally, its meaning is `if the
550   entity is unchanged, send me the part(s) that I am missing;
551   otherwise, send me the entire new entity'.
552
553     If-Range   = "If-Range" ":" OWS If-Range-v
554     If-Range-v = entity-tag / HTTP-date
555
556
557
558
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561Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
562
563
564   If the client has no entity tag for an entity, but does have a Last-
565   Modified date, it MAY use that date in an If-Range header.  (The
566   server can distinguish between a valid HTTP-date and any form of
567   entity-tag by examining no more than two characters.)  The If-Range
568   header SHOULD only be used together with a Range header, and MUST be
569   ignored if the request does not include a Range header, or if the
570   server does not support the sub-range operation.
571
572   If the entity tag given in the If-Range header matches the current
573   cache validator for the entity, then the server SHOULD provide the
574   specified sub-range of the entity using a 206 (Partial Content)
575   response.  If the cache validator does not match, then the server
576   SHOULD return the entire entity using a 200 (OK) response.
577
5785.4.  Range
579
5805.4.1.  Byte Ranges
581
582   Since all HTTP entities are represented in HTTP messages as sequences
583   of bytes, the concept of a byte range is meaningful for any HTTP
584   entity.  (However, not all clients and servers need to support byte-
585   range operations.)
586
587   Byte range specifications in HTTP apply to the sequence of bytes in
588   the entity-body (not necessarily the same as the message-body).
589
590   A byte range operation MAY specify a single range of bytes, or a set
591   of ranges within a single entity.
592
593     byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
594     byte-range-set  = 1#( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec )
595     byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
596     first-byte-pos  = 1*DIGIT
597     last-byte-pos   = 1*DIGIT
598
599   The first-byte-pos value in a byte-range-spec gives the byte-offset
600   of the first byte in a range.  The last-byte-pos value gives the
601   byte-offset of the last byte in the range; that is, the byte
602   positions specified are inclusive.  Byte offsets start at zero.
603
604   If the last-byte-pos value is present, it MUST be greater than or
605   equal to the first-byte-pos in that byte-range-spec, or the byte-
606   range-spec is syntactically invalid.  The recipient of a byte-range-
607   set that includes one or more syntactically invalid byte-range-spec
608   values MUST ignore the header field that includes that byte-range-
609   set.
610
611   If the last-byte-pos value is absent, or if the value is greater than
612
613
614
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618
619
620   or equal to the current length of the entity-body, last-byte-pos is
621   taken to be equal to one less than the current length of the entity-
622   body in bytes.
623
624   By its choice of last-byte-pos, a client can limit the number of
625   bytes retrieved without knowing the size of the entity.
626
627     suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length
628     suffix-length = 1*DIGIT
629
630   A suffix-byte-range-spec is used to specify the suffix of the entity-
631   body, of a length given by the suffix-length value.  (That is, this
632   form specifies the last N bytes of an entity-body.)  If the entity is
633   shorter than the specified suffix-length, the entire entity-body is
634   used.
635
636   If a syntactically valid byte-range-set includes at least one byte-
637   range-spec whose first-byte-pos is less than the current length of
638   the entity-body, or at least one suffix-byte-range-spec with a non-
639   zero suffix-length, then the byte-range-set is satisfiable.
640   Otherwise, the byte-range-set is unsatisfiable.  If the byte-range-
641   set is unsatisfiable, the server SHOULD return a response with a
642   status of 416 (Requested range not satisfiable).  Otherwise, the
643   server SHOULD return a response with a status of 206 (Partial
644   Content) containing the satisfiable ranges of the entity-body.
645
646   Examples of byte-ranges-specifier values (assuming an entity-body of
647   length 10000):
648
649   o  The first 500 bytes (byte offsets 0-499, inclusive):
650
651        bytes=0-499
652
653   o  The second 500 bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
654
655        bytes=500-999
656
657   o  The final 500 bytes (byte offsets 9500-9999, inclusive):
658
659        bytes=-500
660
661      Or:
662
663        bytes=9500-
664
665   o  The first and last bytes only (bytes 0 and 9999):
666
667        bytes=0-0,-1
668
669
670
671Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 12]
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674
675
676   o  Several legal but not canonical specifications of the second 500
677      bytes (byte offsets 500-999, inclusive):
678
679        bytes=500-600,601-999
680        bytes=500-700,601-999
681
6825.4.2.  Range Retrieval Requests
683
684   The "Range" request-header field defines the GET method (conditional
685   or not) to request one or more sub-ranges of the response entity-
686   body, instead of the entire entity body.
687
688     Range   = "Range" ":" OWS Range-v
689     Range-v = byte-ranges-specifier
690             / other-ranges-specifier
691     other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
692     other-range-set = 1*CHAR
693
694   A server MAY ignore the Range header.  However, HTTP/1.1 origin
695   servers and intermediate caches ought to support byte ranges when
696   possible, since Range supports efficient recovery from partially
697   failed transfers, and supports efficient partial retrieval of large
698   entities.
699
700   If the server supports the Range header and the specified range or
701   ranges are appropriate for the entity:
702
703   o  The presence of a Range header in an unconditional GET modifies
704      what is returned if the GET is otherwise successful.  In other
705      words, the response carries a status code of 206 (Partial Content)
706      instead of 200 (OK).
707
708   o  The presence of a Range header in a conditional GET (a request
709      using one or both of If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match, or one
710      or both of If-Unmodified-Since and If-Match) modifies what is
711      returned if the GET is otherwise successful and the condition is
712      true.  It does not affect the 304 (Not Modified) response returned
713      if the conditional is false.
714
715   In some cases, it might be more appropriate to use the If-Range
716   header (see Section 5.3) in addition to the Range header.
717
718   If a proxy that supports ranges receives a Range request, forwards
719   the request to an inbound server, and receives an entire entity in
720   reply, it SHOULD only return the requested range to its client.  It
721   SHOULD store the entire received response in its cache if that is
722   consistent with its cache allocation policies.
723
724
725
726
727Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 13]
728
729Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
730
731
7326.  IANA Considerations
733
7346.1.  Status Code Registration
735
736   The HTTP Status Code Registry located at
737   <http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> should be updated
738   with the registrations below:
739
740   +-------+---------------------------------+-------------+
741   | Value | Description                     | Reference   |
742   +-------+---------------------------------+-------------+
743   | 206   | Partial Content                 | Section 3.1 |
744   | 416   | Requested Range Not Satisfiable | Section 3.2 |
745   +-------+---------------------------------+-------------+
746
7476.2.  Message Header Registration
748
749   The Message Header Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/
750   assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> should be
751   updated with the permanent registrations below (see [RFC3864]):
752
753   +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
754   | Header Field Name | Protocol | Status   | Reference   |
755   +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
756   | Accept-Ranges     | http     | standard | Section 5.1 |
757   | Content-Range     | http     | standard | Section 5.2 |
758   | If-Range          | http     | standard | Section 5.3 |
759   | Range             | http     | standard | Section 5.4 |
760   +-------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
761
762   The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
763   Engineering Task Force".
764
765
7667.  Security Considerations
767
768   No additional security considerations have been identified beyond
769   those applicable to HTTP in general [Part1].
770
771
7728.  Acknowledgments
773
774   Most of the specification of ranges is based on work originally done
775   by Ari Luotonen and John Franks, with additional input from Steve
776   Zilles, Daniel W. Connolly, Roy T. Fielding, Jim Gettys, Martin
777   Hamilton, Koen Holtman, Shel Kaplan, Paul Leach, Alex Lopez-Ortiz,
778   Larry Masinter, Jeff Mogul, Lou Montulli, David W. Morris, Luigi
779   Rizzo, and Bill Weihl.
780
781
782
783Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 14]
784
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786
787
7889.  References
789
7909.1.  Normative References
791
792   [Part1]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
793              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
794              and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections,
795              and Message Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-08
796              (work in progress), October 2009.
797
798   [Part3]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
799              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
800              and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload
801              and Content Negotiation", draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-08
802              (work in progress), October 2009.
803
804   [Part4]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
805              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
806              and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional
807              Requests", draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-08 (work in
808              progress), October 2009.
809
810   [Part6]    Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
811              Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
812              Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part
813              6: Caching", draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-08 (work in
814              progress), October 2009.
815
816   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
817              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
818              November 1996.
819
820   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
821              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
822
823   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
824              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
825
8269.2.  Informative References
827
828   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
829              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
830              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
831
832   [RFC3864]  Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
833              Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
834              September 2004.
835
836
837
838
839Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 15]
840
841Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
842
843
844   [RFC4288]  Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
845              Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.
846
847
848Appendix A.  Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges
849
850   When an HTTP 206 (Partial Content) response message includes the
851   content of multiple ranges (a response to a request for multiple non-
852   overlapping ranges), these are transmitted as a multipart message-
853   body ([RFC2046], Section 5.1).  The media type for this purpose is
854   called "multipart/byteranges".  The following is to be registered
855   with IANA [RFC4288].
856
857      Note: Despite the name "multipart/byteranges" is not limited to
858      the byte ranges only.
859
860   The multipart/byteranges media type includes one or more parts, each
861   with its own Content-Type and Content-Range fields.  The required
862   boundary parameter specifies the boundary string used to separate
863   each body-part.
864
865   Type name:  multipart
866
867   Subtype name:  byteranges
868
869   Required parameters:  boundary
870
871   Optional parameters:  none
872
873   Encoding considerations:  only "7bit", "8bit", or "binary" are
874      permitted
875
876   Security considerations:  none
877
878   Interoperability considerations:  none
879
880   Published specification:  This specification (see Appendix A).
881
882   Applications that use this media type:
883
884   Additional information:
885
886      Magic number(s):  none
887
888      File extension(s):  none
889
890
891
892
893
894
895Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 16]
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897Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
898
899
900      Macintosh file type code(s):  none
901
902   Person and email address to contact for further information:  See
903      Authors Section.
904
905   Intended usage:  COMMON
906
907   Restrictions on usage:  none
908
909   Author/Change controller:  IESG
910
911   For example:
912
913     HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
914     Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
915     Last-Modified: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 04:58:08 GMT
916     Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
917
918     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
919     Content-type: application/pdf
920     Content-range: bytes 500-999/8000
921
922     ...the first range...
923     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
924     Content-type: application/pdf
925     Content-range: bytes 7000-7999/8000
926
927     ...the second range
928     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 17]
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953Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
954
955
956   Other example:
957
958     HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
959     Date: Tue, 14 Nov 1995 06:25:24 GMT
960     Last-Modified: Tue, 14 July 04:58:08 GMT
961     Content-type: multipart/byteranges; boundary=THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
962
963     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
964     Content-type: video/example
965     Content-range: exampleunit 1.2-4.3/25
966
967     ...the first range...
968     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES
969     Content-type: video/example
970     Content-range: exampleunit 11.2-14.3/25
971
972     ...the second range
973     --THIS_STRING_SEPARATES--
974
975   Notes:
976
977   1.  Additional CRLFs may precede the first boundary string in the
978       entity.
979
980   2.  Although [RFC2046] permits the boundary string to be quoted, some
981       existing implementations handle a quoted boundary string
982       incorrectly.
983
984   3.  A number of browsers and servers were coded to an early draft of
985       the byteranges specification to use a media type of multipart/
986       x-byteranges, which is almost, but not quite compatible with the
987       version documented in HTTP/1.1.
988
989
990Appendix B.  Compatibility with Previous Versions
991
992B.1.  Changes from RFC 2068
993
994   Transfer-coding and message lengths all interact in ways that
995   required fixing exactly when chunked encoding is used (to allow for
996   transfer encoding that may not be self delimiting); it was important
997   to straighten out exactly how message lengths are computed.
998   (Section 5.2, see also [Part1], [Part3] and [Part6])
999
1000   There are situations where a server (especially a proxy) does not
1001   know the full length of a response but is capable of serving a
1002   byterange request.  We therefore need a mechanism to allow byteranges
1003   with a content-range not indicating the full length of the message.
1004
1005
1006
1007Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 18]
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1010
1011
1012   (Section 5.2)
1013
1014   Range request responses would become very verbose if all meta-data
1015   were always returned; by allowing the server to only send needed
1016   headers in a 206 response, this problem can be avoided.  (Section 3.1
1017   and 5.3)
1018
1019   Fix problem with unsatisfiable range requests; there are two cases:
1020   syntactic problems, and range doesn't exist in the document.  The 416
1021   status code was needed to resolve this ambiguity needed to indicate
1022   an error for a byte range request that falls outside of the actual
1023   contents of a document.  (Section 3.2, 5.2)
1024
1025B.2.  Changes from RFC 2616
1026
1027   Clarify that it is not ok to use a weak cache validator in a 206
1028   response.  (Section 3.1)
1029
1030   Clarify that multipart/byteranges can consist of a single part.
1031   (Appendix A)
1032
1033
1034Appendix C.  Collected ABNF
1035
1036   Accept-Ranges = "Accept-Ranges:" OWS Accept-Ranges-v
1037   Accept-Ranges-v = acceptable-ranges
1038
1039   Content-Range = "Content-Range:" OWS Content-Range-v
1040   Content-Range-v = content-range-spec
1041
1042   HTTP-date = <HTTP-date, defined in [Part1], Section 6.1>
1043
1044   If-Range = "If-Range:" OWS If-Range-v
1045   If-Range-v = entity-tag / HTTP-date
1046
1047   OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
1048
1049   Range = "Range:" OWS Range-v
1050   Range-v = byte-ranges-specifier / other-ranges-specifier
1051
1052   acceptable-ranges = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS
1053    range-unit ] ) ) / "none"
1054
1055   byte-content-range-spec = bytes-unit SP byte-range-resp-spec "/" (
1056    instance-length / "*" )
1057   byte-range-resp-spec = ( first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos ) / "*"
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 19]
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1066
1067
1068   byte-range-set = ( *( "," OWS ) byte-range-spec ) / (
1069    suffix-byte-range-spec *( OWS "," [ ( OWS byte-range-spec ) /
1070    suffix-byte-range-spec ] ) )
1071   byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
1072   byte-ranges-specifier = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
1073   bytes-unit = "bytes"
1074
1075   content-range-spec = byte-content-range-spec /
1076    other-content-range-spec
1077
1078   entity-tag = <entity-tag, defined in [Part4], Section 2>
1079
1080   first-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
1081
1082   instance-length = 1*DIGIT
1083
1084   last-byte-pos = 1*DIGIT
1085
1086   other-content-range-spec = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp-spec
1087   other-range-resp-spec = *CHAR
1088   other-range-set = 1*CHAR
1089   other-range-unit = token
1090   other-ranges-specifier = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set
1091
1092   range-unit = bytes-unit / other-range-unit
1093
1094   suffix-byte-range-spec = "-" suffix-length
1095   suffix-length = 1*DIGIT
1096
1097   token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
1098
1099   ABNF diagnostics:
1100
1101   ; Accept-Ranges defined but not used
1102   ; Content-Range defined but not used
1103   ; If-Range defined but not used
1104   ; Range defined but not used
1105
1106
1107Appendix D.  Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
1108
1109D.1.  Since RFC2616
1110
1111   Extracted relevant partitions from [RFC2616].
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 20]
1120
1121Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1122
1123
1124D.2.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-00
1125
1126   Closed issues:
1127
1128   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/18>: "Cache
1129      validators in 206 responses"
1130      (<http://purl.org/NET/http-errata#ifrange206>)
1131
1132   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35>: "Normative and
1133      Informative references"
1134
1135   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/86>: "Normative up-
1136      to-date references"
1137
1138D.3.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-01
1139
1140   Closed issues:
1141
1142   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/55>: "Updating to
1143      RFC4288"
1144
1145   Ongoing work on ABNF conversion
1146   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
1147
1148   o  Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from
1149      other parts of the specification.
1150
1151D.4.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-02
1152
1153   Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration
1154   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40>):
1155
1156   o  Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers
1157      defined in this document.
1158
1159D.5.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-03
1160
1161D.6.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-04
1162
1163   Closed issues:
1164
1165   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/133>: "multipart/
1166      byteranges minimum number of parts"
1167
1168   Ongoing work on ABNF conversion
1169   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 21]
1176
1177Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1178
1179
1180   o  Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
1181
1182   o  Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
1183      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
1184
1185   o  Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header
1186      value format definitions.
1187
1188D.7.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-05
1189
1190   Closed issues:
1191
1192   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/142>: "State base
1193      for *-byte-pos and suffix-length"
1194
1195   Ongoing work on Custom Ranges
1196   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/85>):
1197
1198   o  Remove bias in favor of byte ranges; allow custom ranges in ABNF.
1199
1200   Final work on ABNF conversion
1201   (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
1202
1203   o  Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize
1204      ABNF introduction.
1205
1206D.8.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-06
1207
1208   Closed issues:
1209
1210   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/161>: "base for
1211      numeric protocol elements"
1212
1213D.9.  Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-07
1214
1215   Closed issues:
1216
1217   o  Fixed discrepancy in the If-Range definition about allowed
1218      validators.
1219
1220   o  <http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/150>:
1221      "multipart/byteranges for custom range units"
1222
1223   o  <http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/151>: "range
1224      unit missing from other-ranges-specifier in Range header"
1225
1226   o  <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/198>: "move IANA
1227      registrations for optional status codes"
1228
1229
1230
1231Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 22]
1232
1233Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1234
1235
1236Index
1237
1238   2
1239      206 Partial Content (status code)  6
1240
1241   4
1242      416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable (status code)  6
1243
1244   A
1245      Accept-Ranges header  7
1246
1247   C
1248      Content-Range header  8
1249
1250   G
1251      Grammar
1252         Accept-Ranges  7
1253         Accept-Ranges-v  7
1254         acceptable-ranges  7
1255         byte-content-range-spec  8
1256         byte-range-resp-spec  8
1257         byte-range-set  11
1258         byte-range-spec  11
1259         byte-ranges-specifier  11
1260         bytes-unit  5
1261         Content-Range  8
1262         content-range-spec  8
1263         Content-Range-v  8
1264         first-byte-pos  11
1265         If-Range  10
1266         If-Range-v  10
1267         instance-length  8
1268         last-byte-pos  11
1269         other-range-unit  5
1270         Range  13
1271         range-unit  5
1272         ranges-specifier  11
1273         suffix-byte-range-spec  12
1274         suffix-length  12
1275
1276   H
1277      Headers
1278         Accept-Ranges  7
1279         Content-Range  8
1280         If-Range  10
1281         Range  11
1282
1283   I
1284
1285
1286
1287Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 23]
1288
1289Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1290
1291
1292      If-Range header  10
1293
1294   M
1295      Media Type
1296         multipart/byteranges  16
1297         multipart/x-byteranges  18
1298      multipart/byteranges Media Type  16
1299      multipart/x-byteranges Media Type  18
1300
1301   R
1302      Range header  11
1303
1304   S
1305      Status Codes
1306         206 Partial Content  6
1307         416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable  6
1308
1309
1310Authors' Addresses
1311
1312   Roy T. Fielding (editor)
1313   Day Software
1314   23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280
1315   Newport Beach, CA  92660
1316   USA
1317
1318   Phone: +1-949-706-5300
1319   Fax:   +1-949-706-5305
1320   Email: fielding@gbiv.com
1321   URI:   http://roy.gbiv.com/
1322
1323
1324   Jim Gettys
1325   One Laptop per Child
1326   21 Oak Knoll Road
1327   Carlisle, MA  01741
1328   USA
1329
1330   Email: jg@laptop.org
1331   URI:   http://www.laptop.org/
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 24]
1344
1345Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1346
1347
1348   Jeffrey C. Mogul
1349   Hewlett-Packard Company
1350   HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group
1351   1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177
1352   Palo Alto, CA  94304
1353   USA
1354
1355   Email: JeffMogul@acm.org
1356
1357
1358   Henrik Frystyk Nielsen
1359   Microsoft Corporation
1360   1 Microsoft Way
1361   Redmond, WA  98052
1362   USA
1363
1364   Email: henrikn@microsoft.com
1365
1366
1367   Larry Masinter
1368   Adobe Systems, Incorporated
1369   345 Park Ave
1370   San Jose, CA  95110
1371   USA
1372
1373   Email: LMM@acm.org
1374   URI:   http://larry.masinter.net/
1375
1376
1377   Paul J. Leach
1378   Microsoft Corporation
1379   1 Microsoft Way
1380   Redmond, WA  98052
1381
1382   Email: paulle@microsoft.com
1383
1384
1385   Tim Berners-Lee
1386   World Wide Web Consortium
1387   MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
1388   The Stata Center, Building 32
1389   32 Vassar Street
1390   Cambridge, MA  02139
1391   USA
1392
1393   Email: timbl@w3.org
1394   URI:   http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 25]
1400
1401Internet-Draft              HTTP/1.1, Part 5                October 2009
1402
1403
1404   Yves Lafon (editor)
1405   World Wide Web Consortium
1406   W3C / ERCIM
1407   2004, rte des Lucioles
1408   Sophia-Antipolis, AM  06902
1409   France
1410
1411   Email: ylafon@w3.org
1412   URI:   http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/
1413
1414
1415   Julian F. Reschke (editor)
1416   greenbytes GmbH
1417   Hafenweg 16
1418   Muenster, NW  48155
1419   Germany
1420
1421   Phone: +49 251 2807760
1422   Fax:   +49 251 2807761
1423   Email: julian.reschke@greenbytes.de
1424   URI:   http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455Fielding, et al.         Expires April 29, 2010                [Page 26]
1456
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