source: draft-ietf-httpbis/05/p3-payload.xml @ 2116

Last change on this file since 2116 was 1500, checked in by julian.reschke@…, 9 years ago

fix mime types

  • Property svn:eol-style set to native
  • Property svn:mime-type set to text/xml
File size: 120.2 KB
[29]1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
[101]2<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='../myxml2rfc.xslt'?>
[8]3<!DOCTYPE rfc [
4  <!ENTITY MAY "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MAY</bcp14>">
5  <!ENTITY MUST "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST</bcp14>">
6  <!ENTITY MUST-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>MUST NOT</bcp14>">
7  <!ENTITY OPTIONAL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>OPTIONAL</bcp14>">
8  <!ENTITY RECOMMENDED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>RECOMMENDED</bcp14>">
9  <!ENTITY REQUIRED "<bcp14 xmlns=''>REQUIRED</bcp14>">
10  <!ENTITY SHALL "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL</bcp14>">
11  <!ENTITY SHALL-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHALL NOT</bcp14>">
12  <!ENTITY SHOULD "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD</bcp14>">
13  <!ENTITY SHOULD-NOT "<bcp14 xmlns=''>SHOULD NOT</bcp14>">
[381]14  <!ENTITY ID-VERSION "05">
[331]15  <!ENTITY ID-MONTH "November">
[124]16  <!ENTITY ID-YEAR "2008">
[205]17  <!ENTITY notation-abnf            "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#notation.abnf' xmlns:x=''/>">
18  <!ENTITY basic-rules              "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#basic.rules' xmlns:x=''/>">
[115]19  <!ENTITY caching-neg-resp         "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#caching.negotiated.responses' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]20  <!ENTITY header-transfer-encoding "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.transfer-encoding' xmlns:x=''/>">
21  <!ENTITY header-content-length    "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#header.content-length' xmlns:x=''/>">
22  <!ENTITY header-content-range     "<xref target='Part5' x:rel='#header.content-range' xmlns:x=''/>">
23  <!ENTITY header-expires           "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.expires' xmlns:x=''/>">
24  <!ENTITY header-last-modified     "<xref target='Part4' x:rel='#header.last-modified' xmlns:x=''/>">
25  <!ENTITY header-user-agent        "<xref target='Part2' x:rel='#header.user-agent' xmlns:x=''/>">
[115]26  <!ENTITY header-vary              "<xref target='Part6' x:rel='#header.vary' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]27  <!ENTITY message-body             "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message.body' xmlns:x=''/>">
28  <!ENTITY message-length           "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message.length' xmlns:x=''/>">
[206]29  <!ENTITY message-headers          "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#message.headers' xmlns:x=''/>">
[31]30  <!ENTITY multipart-byteranges     "<xref target='Part5' x:rel='' xmlns:x=''/>">
[374]31  <!ENTITY uri                      "<xref target='Part1' x:rel='#uri' xmlns:x=''/>">
33<?rfc toc="yes" ?>
[29]34<?rfc symrefs="yes" ?>
35<?rfc sortrefs="yes" ?>
[8]36<?rfc compact="yes"?>
37<?rfc subcompact="no" ?>
38<?rfc linkmailto="no" ?>
39<?rfc editing="no" ?>
[203]40<?rfc comments="yes"?>
41<?rfc inline="yes"?>
[8]42<?rfc-ext allow-markup-in-artwork="yes" ?>
43<?rfc-ext include-references-in-index="yes" ?>
[308]44<rfc obsoletes="2616" category="std" x:maturity-level="draft"
[29]45     ipr="full3978" docName="draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-&ID-VERSION;"
[153]46     xmlns:x=''>
[120]49  <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1, Part 3">HTTP/1.1, part 3: Message Payload and Content Negotiation</title>
[29]51  <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
52    <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
[8]53    <address>
54      <postal>
[29]55        <street>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</street>
56        <city>Newport Beach</city>
[8]57        <region>CA</region>
[29]58        <code>92660</code>
59        <country>USA</country>
[8]60      </postal>
[29]61      <phone>+1-949-706-5300</phone>
62      <facsimile>+1-949-706-5305</facsimile>
63      <email></email>
64      <uri></uri>
[8]65    </address>
66  </author>
[29]68  <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
69    <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
[8]70    <address>
71      <postal>
[29]72        <street>21 Oak Knoll Road</street>
73        <city>Carlisle</city>
[8]74        <region>MA</region>
[29]75        <code>01741</code>
76        <country>USA</country>
[8]77      </postal>
[29]78      <email></email>
79      <uri></uri>
[8]80    </address>
81  </author>
83  <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
[29]84    <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
[8]85    <address>
86      <postal>
[29]87        <street>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</street>
88        <street>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</street>
[8]89        <city>Palo Alto</city>
90        <region>CA</region>
[29]91        <code>94304</code>
92        <country>USA</country>
[8]93      </postal>
[29]94      <email></email>
[8]95    </address>
96  </author>
98  <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
[29]99    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
[8]100    <address>
101      <postal>
[29]102        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
103        <city>Redmond</city>
104        <region>WA</region>
105        <code>98052</code>
106        <country>USA</country>
[8]107      </postal>
[29]108      <email></email>
[8]109    </address>
110  </author>
112  <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
[29]113    <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
[8]114    <address>
115      <postal>
[29]116        <street>345 Park Ave</street>
117        <city>San Jose</city>
[8]118        <region>CA</region>
[29]119        <code>95110</code>
120        <country>USA</country>
[8]121      </postal>
[29]122      <email></email>
123      <uri></uri>
[8]124    </address>
125  </author>
127  <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
128    <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
129    <address>
130      <postal>
131        <street>1 Microsoft Way</street>
132        <city>Redmond</city>
133        <region>WA</region>
134        <code>98052</code>
135      </postal>
136      <email></email>
137    </address>
138  </author>
140  <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
141    <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
142    <address>
143      <postal>
[34]144        <street>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</street>
145        <street>The Stata Center, Building 32</street>
146        <street>32 Vassar Street</street>
[8]147        <city>Cambridge</city>
148        <region>MA</region>
149        <code>02139</code>
[29]150        <country>USA</country>
[8]151      </postal>
152      <email></email>
[34]153      <uri></uri>
[8]154    </address>
155  </author>
[95]157  <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
[94]158    <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
159    <address>
160      <postal>
161        <street>W3C / ERCIM</street>
162        <street>2004, rte des Lucioles</street>
163        <city>Sophia-Antipolis</city>
164        <region>AM</region>
165        <code>06902</code>
166        <country>France</country>
167      </postal>
168      <email></email>
169      <uri></uri>
170    </address>
171  </author>
[95]173  <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
174    <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
175    <address>
176      <postal>
177        <street>Hafenweg 16</street>
178        <city>Muenster</city><region>NW</region><code>48155</code>
179        <country>Germany</country>
180      </postal>
181      <phone>+49 251 2807760</phone>   
182      <facsimile>+49 251 2807761</facsimile>   
183      <email></email>       
184      <uri></uri>     
185    </address>
186  </author>
[381]188  <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;" day="16"/>
192   The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
193   protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
[29]194   systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information
[35]195   initiative since 1990. This document is Part 3 of the seven-part specification
[29]196   that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together,
[42]197   obsoletes RFC 2616.  Part 3 defines HTTP message content,
[29]198   metadata, and content negotiation.
202<note title="Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)">
203  <t>
204    Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group
205    mailing list ( The current issues list is
[324]206    at <eref target=""/>
[36]207    and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
[324]208    <eref target=""/>.
[36]209  </t>
[153]210  <t>
[345]211    The changes in this draft are summarized in <xref target="changes.since.04"/>.
[153]212  </t>
216<section title="Introduction" anchor="introduction">
[163]218   This document defines HTTP/1.1 message payloads (a.k.a., content), the
[161]219   associated metadata header fields that define how the payload is intended
220   to be interpreted by a recipient, the request header fields that
221   may influence content selection, and the various selection algorithms
222   that are collectively referred to as HTTP content negotiation.
225   This document is currently disorganized in order to minimize the changes
226   between drafts and enable reviewers to see the smaller errata changes.
227   The next draft will reorganize the sections to better reflect the content.
228   In particular, the sections on entities will be renamed payload and moved
229   to the first half of the document, while the sections on content negotiation
230   and associated request header fields will be moved to the second half.  The
231   current mess reflects how widely dispersed these topics and associated
232   requirements had become in <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
235<section title="Requirements" anchor="intro.requirements">
237   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
238   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
239   document are to be interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119"/>.
242   An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
243   of the &MUST; or &REQUIRED; level requirements for the protocols it
244   implements. An implementation that satisfies all the &MUST; or &REQUIRED;
245   level and all the &SHOULD; level requirements for its protocols is said
246   to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the &MUST;
247   level requirements but not all the &SHOULD; level requirements for its
248   protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
[205]253<section title="Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar" anchor="notation">
[229]254  <x:anchor-alias value="ALPHA"/>
255  <x:anchor-alias value="DIGIT"/>
256  <x:anchor-alias value="OCTET"/>
257  <x:anchor-alias value="quoted-string"/>
258  <x:anchor-alias value="token"/>
[357]259  <x:anchor-alias value="OWS"/>
261  This specification uses the ABNF syntax defined in &notation-abnf; and
262  the core rules defined in &basic-rules;:
264<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
[229]265  <x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref>          = &lt;ALPHA, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
266  <x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>          = &lt;DIGIT, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
267  <x:ref>OCTET</x:ref>          = &lt;OCTET, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
269<figure><artwork type="abnf2616">
[229]270  <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>  = &lt;quoted-string, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
271  <x:ref>token</x:ref>          = &lt;token, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
[357]272  <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>            = &lt;OWS, defined in &basic-rules;&gt;
[207]274<t anchor="abnf.dependencies">
[374]275  <x:anchor-alias value="absolute-URI"/>
[229]276  <x:anchor-alias value="Allow"/>
277  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Length"/>
278  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Range"/>
279  <x:anchor-alias value="Expires"/>
280  <x:anchor-alias value="Last-Modified"/>
281  <x:anchor-alias value="message-header"/>
282  <x:anchor-alias value="relativeURI"/>
[206]283  The ABNF rules below are defined in other parts:
[207]285<figure><!--Part1--><artwork type="abnf2616">
[374]286  <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref>   = &lt;absolute-URI, defined in &uri;&gt;
[229]287  <x:ref>Content-Length</x:ref> = &lt;Content-Length, defined in &header-content-length;&gt;
[374]288  <x:ref>relativeURI</x:ref>    = &lt;relativeURI, defined in &uri;&gt;
[229]289  <x:ref>message-header</x:ref> = &lt;message-header, defined in &message-headers;&gt;
291<figure><!--Part4--><artwork type="abnf2616">
[229]292  <x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref>  = &lt;Last-Modified, defined in &header-last-modified;&gt;
294<figure><!--Part5--><artwork type="abnf2616">
[229]295  <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>  = &lt;Content-Range, defined in &header-content-range;&gt;
297<figure><!--Part6--><artwork type="abnf2616">
[229]298  <x:ref>Expires</x:ref>        = &lt;Expires, defined in &header-expires;&gt;
[8]302<section title="Protocol Parameters" anchor="protocol.parameters">
304<section title="Character Sets" anchor="character.sets">
306   HTTP uses the same definition of the term "character set" as that
307   described for MIME:
310   The term "character set" is used in this document to refer to a
311   method used with one or more tables to convert a sequence of octets
312   into a sequence of characters. Note that unconditional conversion in
313   the other direction is not required, in that not all characters may
314   be available in a given character set and a character set may provide
315   more than one sequence of octets to represent a particular character.
316   This definition is intended to allow various kinds of character
317   encoding, from simple single-table mappings such as US-ASCII to
318   complex table switching methods such as those that use ISO-2022's
319   techniques. However, the definition associated with a MIME character
320   set name &MUST; fully specify the mapping to be performed from octets
321   to characters. In particular, use of external profiling information
322   to determine the exact mapping is not permitted.
325      <x:h>Note:</x:h> This use of the term "character set" is more commonly
326      referred to as a "character encoding." However, since HTTP and
327      MIME share the same registry, it is important that the terminology
328      also be shared.
[229]330<t anchor="rule.charset">
331  <x:anchor-alias value="charset"/>
[8]332   HTTP character sets are identified by case-insensitive tokens. The
333   complete set of tokens is defined by the IANA Character Set registry
[91]334   (<eref target=""/>).
336<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="charset"/>
[229]337  <x:ref>charset</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
340   Although HTTP allows an arbitrary token to be used as a charset
341   value, any token that has a predefined value within the IANA
[91]342   Character Set registry &MUST; represent the character set defined
[8]343   by that registry. Applications &SHOULD; limit their use of character
344   sets to those defined by the IANA registry.
[81]347   HTTP uses charset in two contexts: within an Accept-Charset request
348   header (in which the charset value is an unquoted token) and as the
[115]349   value of a parameter in a Content-Type header (within a request or
[81]350   response), in which case the parameter value of the charset parameter
351   may be quoted.
[129]354   Implementors should be aware of IETF character set requirements <xref target="RFC3629"/>
[8]355   <xref target="RFC2277"/>.
358<section title="Missing Charset" anchor="missing.charset">
360   Some HTTP/1.0 software has interpreted a Content-Type header without
361   charset parameter incorrectly to mean "recipient should guess."
362   Senders wishing to defeat this behavior &MAY; include a charset
363   parameter even when the charset is ISO-8859-1 (<xref target="ISO-8859-1"/>) and &SHOULD; do so when
364   it is known that it will not confuse the recipient.
367   Unfortunately, some older HTTP/1.0 clients did not deal properly with
368   an explicit charset parameter. HTTP/1.1 recipients &MUST; respect the
369   charset label provided by the sender; and those user agents that have
370   a provision to "guess" a charset &MUST; use the charset from the
371   content-type field if they support that charset, rather than the
372   recipient's preference, when initially displaying a document. See
373   <xref target="canonicalization.and.text.defaults"/>.
378<section title="Content Codings" anchor="content.codings">
[229]379  <x:anchor-alias value="content-coding"/>
381   Content coding values indicate an encoding transformation that has
382   been or can be applied to an entity. Content codings are primarily
383   used to allow a document to be compressed or otherwise usefully
384   transformed without losing the identity of its underlying media type
385   and without loss of information. Frequently, the entity is stored in
386   coded form, transmitted directly, and only decoded by the recipient.
388<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="content-coding"/>
[229]389  <x:ref>content-coding</x:ref>   = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
392   All content-coding values are case-insensitive. HTTP/1.1 uses
393   content-coding values in the Accept-Encoding (<xref target="header.accept-encoding"/>) and
394   Content-Encoding (<xref target="header.content-encoding"/>) header fields. Although the value
395   describes the content-coding, what is more important is that it
396   indicates what decoding mechanism will be required to remove the
397   encoding.
400   The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for
401   content-coding value tokens. Initially, the registry contains the
402   following tokens:
405   gzip<iref item="gzip"/>
406  <list>
407    <t>
408        An encoding format produced by the file compression program
[97]409        "gzip" (GNU zip) as described in <xref target="RFC1952"/>. This format is a
[8]410        Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77) with a 32 bit CRC.
411    </t>
412  </list>
415   compress<iref item="compress"/>
416  <list><t>
417        The encoding format produced by the common UNIX file compression
418        program "compress". This format is an adaptive Lempel-Ziv-Welch
419        coding (LZW).
421        Use of program names for the identification of encoding formats
422        is not desirable and is discouraged for future encodings. Their
423        use here is representative of historical practice, not good
424        design. For compatibility with previous implementations of HTTP,
425        applications &SHOULD; consider "x-gzip" and "x-compress" to be
426        equivalent to "gzip" and "compress" respectively.
427  </t></list>
430   deflate<iref item="deflate"/>
431  <list><t>
[97]432        The "zlib" format defined in <xref target="RFC1950"/> in combination with
433        the "deflate" compression mechanism described in <xref target="RFC1951"/>.
[8]434  </t></list>
437   identity<iref item="identity"/>
438  <list><t>
439        The default (identity) encoding; the use of no transformation
440        whatsoever. This content-coding is used only in the Accept-Encoding
441        header, and &SHOULD-NOT;  be used in the Content-Encoding
442        header.
443  </t></list>
446   New content-coding value tokens &SHOULD; be registered; to allow
447   interoperability between clients and servers, specifications of the
448   content coding algorithms needed to implement a new value &SHOULD; be
449   publicly available and adequate for independent implementation, and
450   conform to the purpose of content coding defined in this section.
454<section title="Media Types" anchor="media.types">
[229]455  <x:anchor-alias value="media-type"/>
456  <x:anchor-alias value="type"/>
457  <x:anchor-alias value="subtype"/>
[152]459   HTTP uses Internet Media Types <xref target="RFC2046"/> in the Content-Type (<xref target="header.content-type"/>)
[8]460   and Accept (<xref target="header.accept"/>) header fields in order to provide
461   open and extensible data typing and type negotiation.
463<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="media-type"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="type"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="subtype"/>
[357]464  <x:ref>media-type</x:ref> = <x:ref>type</x:ref> "/" <x:ref>subtype</x:ref> *( <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>parameter</x:ref> )
465  <x:ref>type</x:ref>       = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
466  <x:ref>subtype</x:ref>    = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[229]468<t anchor="rule.parameter">
469  <x:anchor-alias value="attribute"/>
470  <x:anchor-alias value="parameter"/>
471  <x:anchor-alias value="value"/>
[8]472   Parameters &MAY; follow the type/subtype in the form of attribute/value
[29]473   pairs.
[29]475<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="parameter"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="attribute"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="value"/>
[250]476  <x:ref>parameter</x:ref>      = <x:ref>attribute</x:ref> "=" <x:ref>value</x:ref>
477  <x:ref>attribute</x:ref>      = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[334]478  <x:ref>value</x:ref>          = <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
481   The type, subtype, and parameter attribute names are case-insensitive.
[370]482   Parameter values might or might not be case-sensitive, depending on the
483   semantics of the parameter name.  The presence or absence of a parameter might
[8]484   be significant to the processing of a media-type, depending on its
485   definition within the media type registry.
[297]488   A parameter value that matches the <x:ref>token</x:ref> production may be
489   transmitted as either a token or within a quoted-string. The quoted and
490   unquoted values are equivalent.
[8]493   Note that some older HTTP applications do not recognize media type
494   parameters. When sending data to older HTTP applications,
495   implementations &SHOULD; only use media type parameters when they are
496   required by that type/subtype definition.
499   Media-type values are registered with the Internet Assigned Number
[91]500   Authority (IANA). The media type registration process is
[115]501   outlined in <xref target="RFC4288"/>. Use of non-registered media types is
[8]502   discouraged.
505<section title="Canonicalization and Text Defaults" anchor="canonicalization.and.text.defaults">
507   Internet media types are registered with a canonical form. An
508   entity-body transferred via HTTP messages &MUST; be represented in the
509   appropriate canonical form prior to its transmission except for
510   "text" types, as defined in the next paragraph.
513   When in canonical form, media subtypes of the "text" type use CRLF as
514   the text line break. HTTP relaxes this requirement and allows the
515   transport of text media with plain CR or LF alone representing a line
516   break when it is done consistently for an entire entity-body. HTTP
517   applications &MUST; accept CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF as being
518   representative of a line break in text media received via HTTP. In
519   addition, if the text is represented in a character set that does not
520   use octets 13 and 10 for CR and LF respectively, as is the case for
521   some multi-byte character sets, HTTP allows the use of whatever octet
522   sequences are defined by that character set to represent the
523   equivalent of CR and LF for line breaks. This flexibility regarding
524   line breaks applies only to text media in the entity-body; a bare CR
525   or LF &MUST-NOT; be substituted for CRLF within any of the HTTP control
526   structures (such as header fields and multipart boundaries).
529   If an entity-body is encoded with a content-coding, the underlying
530   data &MUST; be in a form defined above prior to being encoded.
[211]533   The "charset" parameter is used with some media types to define the
534   character set (<xref target="character.sets"/>) of the data. When no explicit charset
535   parameter is provided by the sender, media subtypes of the "text"
536   type are defined to have a default charset value of "ISO-8859-1" when
537   received via HTTP. Data in character sets other than "ISO-8859-1" or
538   its subsets &MUST; be labeled with an appropriate charset value. See
539   <xref target="missing.charset"/> for compatibility problems.
543<section title="Multipart Types" anchor="multipart.types">
545   MIME provides for a number of "multipart" types -- encapsulations of
546   one or more entities within a single message-body. All multipart
[97]547   types share a common syntax, as defined in <xref target="RFC2046" x:sec="5.1.1" x:fmt="of"/>,
548   and &MUST; include a boundary parameter as part of the media type
[8]549   value. The message body is itself a protocol element and &MUST;
550   therefore use only CRLF to represent line breaks between body-parts.
551   Unlike in RFC 2046, the epilogue of any multipart message &MUST; be
552   empty; HTTP applications &MUST-NOT; transmit the epilogue (even if the
553   original multipart contains an epilogue). These restrictions exist in
554   order to preserve the self-delimiting nature of a multipart message-body,
555   wherein the "end" of the message-body is indicated by the
556   ending multipart boundary.
559   In general, HTTP treats a multipart message-body no differently than
560   any other media type: strictly as payload. The one exception is the
[29]561   "multipart/byteranges" type (&multipart-byteranges;) when it appears in a 206
[97]562   (Partial Content) response.
563   <!-- jre: re-insert removed text pointing to caching? -->
564   In all
[8]565   other cases, an HTTP user agent &SHOULD; follow the same or similar
566   behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type.
567   The MIME header fields within each body-part of a multipart message-body
568   do not have any significance to HTTP beyond that defined by
569   their MIME semantics.
572   In general, an HTTP user agent &SHOULD; follow the same or similar
573   behavior as a MIME user agent would upon receipt of a multipart type.
574   If an application receives an unrecognized multipart subtype, the
575   application &MUST; treat it as being equivalent to "multipart/mixed".
578      <x:h>Note:</x:h> The "multipart/form-data" type has been specifically defined
579      for carrying form data suitable for processing via the POST
[129]580      request method, as described in <xref target="RFC2388"/>.
585<section title="Quality Values" anchor="quality.values">
[229]586  <x:anchor-alias value="qvalue"/>
588   HTTP content negotiation (<xref target="content.negotiation"/>) uses short "floating point"
589   numbers to indicate the relative importance ("weight") of various
590   negotiable parameters.  A weight is normalized to a real number in
591   the range 0 through 1, where 0 is the minimum and 1 the maximum
592   value. If a parameter has a quality value of 0, then content with
593   this parameter is `not acceptable' for the client. HTTP/1.1
594   applications &MUST-NOT; generate more than three digits after the
595   decimal point. User configuration of these values &SHOULD; also be
596   limited in this fashion.
598<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="qvalue"/>
[229]599  <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref>         = ( "0" [ "." 0*3<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> ] )
[334]600                 / ( "1" [ "." 0*3("0") ] )
603   "Quality values" is a misnomer, since these values merely represent
604   relative degradation in desired quality.
608<section title="Language Tags" anchor="language.tags">
[229]609  <x:anchor-alias value="language-tag"/>
610  <x:anchor-alias value="primary-tag"/>
611  <x:anchor-alias value="subtag"/>
613   A language tag identifies a natural language spoken, written, or
614   otherwise conveyed by human beings for communication of information
615   to other human beings. Computer languages are explicitly excluded.
616   HTTP uses language tags within the Accept-Language and Content-Language
617   fields.
620   The syntax and registry of HTTP language tags is the same as that
[97]621   defined by <xref target="RFC1766"/>. In summary, a language tag is composed of 1
[8]622   or more parts: A primary language tag and a possibly empty series of
623   subtags:
625<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="language-tag"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="primary-tag"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="subtag"/>
[229]626  <x:ref>language-tag</x:ref>  = <x:ref>primary-tag</x:ref> *( "-" <x:ref>subtag</x:ref> )
627  <x:ref>primary-tag</x:ref>   = 1*8<x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref>
628  <x:ref>subtag</x:ref>        = 1*8<x:ref>ALPHA</x:ref>
631   White space is not allowed within the tag and all tags are case-insensitive.
632   The name space of language tags is administered by the
633   IANA. Example tags include:
635<figure><artwork type="example">
636    en, en-US, en-cockney, i-cherokee, x-pig-latin
639   where any two-letter primary-tag is an ISO-639 language abbreviation
640   and any two-letter initial subtag is an ISO-3166 country code. (The
641   last three tags above are not registered tags; all but the last are
642   examples of tags which could be registered in future.)
647<section title="Entity" anchor="entity">
649   Request and Response messages &MAY; transfer an entity if not otherwise
650   restricted by the request method or response status code. An entity
651   consists of entity-header fields and an entity-body, although some
652   responses will only include the entity-headers.
655   In this section, both sender and recipient refer to either the client
656   or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity.
659<section title="Entity Header Fields" anchor="entity.header.fields">
[229]660  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-header"/>
661  <x:anchor-alias value="extension-header"/>
663   Entity-header fields define metainformation about the entity-body or,
664   if no body is present, about the resource identified by the request.
666<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="entity-header"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="extension-header"/>
[232]667  <x:ref>entity-header</x:ref>  = <x:ref>Content-Encoding</x:ref>         ; <xref target="header.content-encoding"/>
[334]668                 / <x:ref>Content-Language</x:ref>         ; <xref target="header.content-language"/>
669                 / <x:ref>Content-Length</x:ref>           ; &header-content-length;
670                 / <x:ref>Content-Location</x:ref>         ; <xref target="header.content-location"/>
671                 / <x:ref>Content-MD5</x:ref>              ; <xref target="header.content-md5"/>
672                 / <x:ref>Content-Range</x:ref>            ; &header-content-range;
673                 / <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref>             ; <xref target="header.content-type"/>
674                 / <x:ref>Expires</x:ref>                  ; &header-expires;
675                 / <x:ref>Last-Modified</x:ref>            ; &header-last-modified;
676                 / <x:ref>extension-header</x:ref>
[229]678  <x:ref>extension-header</x:ref> = <x:ref>message-header</x:ref>
681   The extension-header mechanism allows additional entity-header fields
682   to be defined without changing the protocol, but these fields cannot
683   be assumed to be recognizable by the recipient. Unrecognized header
684   fields &SHOULD; be ignored by the recipient and &MUST; be forwarded by
685   transparent proxies.
689<section title="Entity Body" anchor="entity.body">
[229]690  <x:anchor-alias value="entity-body"/>
692   The entity-body (if any) sent with an HTTP request or response is in
693   a format and encoding defined by the entity-header fields.
695<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="entity-body"/>
[229]696  <x:ref>entity-body</x:ref>    = *<x:ref>OCTET</x:ref>
699   An entity-body is only present in a message when a message-body is
[29]700   present, as described in &message-body;. The entity-body is obtained
[8]701   from the message-body by decoding any Transfer-Encoding that might
702   have been applied to ensure safe and proper transfer of the message.
705<section title="Type" anchor="type">
707   When an entity-body is included with a message, the data type of that
708   body is determined via the header fields Content-Type and Content-Encoding.
709   These define a two-layer, ordered encoding model:
711<figure><artwork type="example">
712    entity-body := Content-Encoding( Content-Type( data ) )
715   Content-Type specifies the media type of the underlying data.
716   Content-Encoding may be used to indicate any additional content
717   codings applied to the data, usually for the purpose of data
718   compression, that are a property of the requested resource. There is
719   no default encoding.
722   Any HTTP/1.1 message containing an entity-body &SHOULD; include a
723   Content-Type header field defining the media type of that body. If
724   and only if the media type is not given by a Content-Type field, the
725   recipient &MAY; attempt to guess the media type via inspection of its
726   content and/or the name extension(s) of the URI used to identify the
727   resource. If the media type remains unknown, the recipient &SHOULD;
728   treat it as type "application/octet-stream".
732<section title="Entity Length" anchor="entity.length">
734   The entity-length of a message is the length of the message-body
[29]735   before any transfer-codings have been applied. &message-length; defines
[8]736   how the transfer-length of a message-body is determined.
742<section title="Content Negotiation" anchor="content.negotiation">
744   Most HTTP responses include an entity which contains information for
745   interpretation by a human user. Naturally, it is desirable to supply
746   the user with the "best available" entity corresponding to the
747   request. Unfortunately for servers and caches, not all users have the
748   same preferences for what is "best," and not all user agents are
749   equally capable of rendering all entity types. For that reason, HTTP
750   has provisions for several mechanisms for "content negotiation" --
751   the process of selecting the best representation for a given response
752   when there are multiple representations available.
753  <list><t>
754      <x:h>Note:</x:h> This is not called "format negotiation" because the
755      alternate representations may be of the same media type, but use
756      different capabilities of that type, be in different languages,
757      etc.
758  </t></list>
761   Any response containing an entity-body &MAY; be subject to negotiation,
762   including error responses.
765   There are two kinds of content negotiation which are possible in
766   HTTP: server-driven and agent-driven negotiation. These two kinds of
767   negotiation are orthogonal and thus may be used separately or in
768   combination. One method of combination, referred to as transparent
769   negotiation, occurs when a cache uses the agent-driven negotiation
770   information provided by the origin server in order to provide
771   server-driven negotiation for subsequent requests.
774<section title="Server-driven Negotiation" anchor="server-driven.negotiation">
776   If the selection of the best representation for a response is made by
777   an algorithm located at the server, it is called server-driven
778   negotiation. Selection is based on the available representations of
779   the response (the dimensions over which it can vary; e.g. language,
780   content-coding, etc.) and the contents of particular header fields in
781   the request message or on other information pertaining to the request
782   (such as the network address of the client).
785   Server-driven negotiation is advantageous when the algorithm for
786   selecting from among the available representations is difficult to
787   describe to the user agent, or when the server desires to send its
788   "best guess" to the client along with the first response (hoping to
789   avoid the round-trip delay of a subsequent request if the "best
790   guess" is good enough for the user). In order to improve the server's
791   guess, the user agent &MAY; include request header fields (Accept,
792   Accept-Language, Accept-Encoding, etc.) which describe its
793   preferences for such a response.
796   Server-driven negotiation has disadvantages:
797  <list style="numbers">
798    <t>
799         It is impossible for the server to accurately determine what
800         might be "best" for any given user, since that would require
801         complete knowledge of both the capabilities of the user agent
802         and the intended use for the response (e.g., does the user want
803         to view it on screen or print it on paper?).
804    </t>
805    <t>
806         Having the user agent describe its capabilities in every
807         request can be both very inefficient (given that only a small
808         percentage of responses have multiple representations) and a
809         potential violation of the user's privacy.
810    </t>
811    <t>
812         It complicates the implementation of an origin server and the
813         algorithms for generating responses to a request.
814    </t>
815    <t>
816         It may limit a public cache's ability to use the same response
817         for multiple user's requests.
818    </t>
819  </list>
822   HTTP/1.1 includes the following request-header fields for enabling
823   server-driven negotiation through description of user agent
824   capabilities and user preferences: Accept (<xref target="header.accept"/>), Accept-Charset
825   (<xref target="header.accept-charset"/>), Accept-Encoding (<xref target="header.accept-encoding"/>), Accept-Language
[29]826   (<xref target="header.accept-language"/>), and User-Agent (&header-user-agent;). However, an
[8]827   origin server is not limited to these dimensions and &MAY; vary the
828   response based on any aspect of the request, including information
829   outside the request-header fields or within extension header fields
830   not defined by this specification.
[115]833   The Vary header field (&header-vary;) can be used to express the parameters the
[8]834   server uses to select a representation that is subject to server-driven
[29]835   negotiation.
839<section title="Agent-driven Negotiation" anchor="agent-driven.negotiation">
841   With agent-driven negotiation, selection of the best representation
842   for a response is performed by the user agent after receiving an
843   initial response from the origin server. Selection is based on a list
844   of the available representations of the response included within the
845   header fields or entity-body of the initial response, with each
846   representation identified by its own URI. Selection from among the
847   representations may be performed automatically (if the user agent is
848   capable of doing so) or manually by the user selecting from a
849   generated (possibly hypertext) menu.
852   Agent-driven negotiation is advantageous when the response would vary
853   over commonly-used dimensions (such as type, language, or encoding),
854   when the origin server is unable to determine a user agent's
855   capabilities from examining the request, and generally when public
856   caches are used to distribute server load and reduce network usage.
859   Agent-driven negotiation suffers from the disadvantage of needing a
860   second request to obtain the best alternate representation. This
861   second request is only efficient when caching is used. In addition,
862   this specification does not define any mechanism for supporting
863   automatic selection, though it also does not prevent any such
864   mechanism from being developed as an extension and used within
865   HTTP/1.1.
868   HTTP/1.1 defines the 300 (Multiple Choices) and 406 (Not Acceptable)
869   status codes for enabling agent-driven negotiation when the server is
870   unwilling or unable to provide a varying response using server-driven
871   negotiation.
875<section title="Transparent Negotiation" anchor="transparent.negotiation">
877   Transparent negotiation is a combination of both server-driven and
878   agent-driven negotiation. When a cache is supplied with a form of the
879   list of available representations of the response (as in agent-driven
880   negotiation) and the dimensions of variance are completely understood
881   by the cache, then the cache becomes capable of performing server-driven
882   negotiation on behalf of the origin server for subsequent
883   requests on that resource.
886   Transparent negotiation has the advantage of distributing the
887   negotiation work that would otherwise be required of the origin
888   server and also removing the second request delay of agent-driven
889   negotiation when the cache is able to correctly guess the right
890   response.
893   This specification does not define any mechanism for transparent
894   negotiation, though it also does not prevent any such mechanism from
895   being developed as an extension that could be used within HTTP/1.1.
[8]900<section title="Header Field Definitions" anchor="header.fields">
[117]902   This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields
903   related to the payload of messages.
906   For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the
907   client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity.
[8]910<section title="Accept" anchor="header.accept">
911  <iref primary="true" item="Accept header" x:for-anchor=""/>
912  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Accept" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]913  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept"/>
[357]914  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-v"/>
[370]915  <x:anchor-alias value="accept-ext"/>
[229]916  <x:anchor-alias value="accept-params"/>
917  <x:anchor-alias value="media-range"/>
[357]919   The request-header field "Accept" can be used to specify certain media
[8]920   types which are acceptable for the response. Accept headers can be
921   used to indicate that the request is specifically limited to a small
922   set of desired types, as in the case of a request for an in-line
923   image.
[370]925<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="media-range"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="accept-params"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="accept-ext"/>
[366]926  <x:ref>Accept</x:ref>   = "Accept" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Accept-v</x:ref>
[357]927  <x:ref>Accept-v</x:ref> = #( <x:ref>media-range</x:ref> [ <x:ref>accept-params</x:ref> ] )
[229]929  <x:ref>media-range</x:ref>    = ( "*/*"
[334]930                   / ( <x:ref>type</x:ref> "/" "*" )
931                   / ( <x:ref>type</x:ref> "/" <x:ref>subtype</x:ref> )
[370]932                   ) *( <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>parameter</x:ref> )
933  <x:ref>accept-params</x:ref>  = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> "q=" <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> *( <x:ref>accept-ext</x:ref> )
[376]934  <x:ref>accept-ext</x:ref>     = <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>token</x:ref>
935                   [ "=" ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> ) ]
938   The asterisk "*" character is used to group media types into ranges,
939   with "*/*" indicating all media types and "type/*" indicating all
940   subtypes of that type. The media-range &MAY; include media type
941   parameters that are applicable to that range.
944   Each media-range &MAY; be followed by one or more accept-params,
945   beginning with the "q" parameter for indicating a relative quality
946   factor. The first "q" parameter (if any) separates the media-range
947   parameter(s) from the accept-params. Quality factors allow the user
948   or user agent to indicate the relative degree of preference for that
949   media-range, using the qvalue scale from 0 to 1 (<xref target="quality.values"/>). The
950   default value is q=1.
951  <list><t>
952      <x:h>Note:</x:h> Use of the "q" parameter name to separate media type
953      parameters from Accept extension parameters is due to historical
954      practice. Although this prevents any media type parameter named
955      "q" from being used with a media range, such an event is believed
956      to be unlikely given the lack of any "q" parameters in the IANA
957      media type registry and the rare usage of any media type
958      parameters in Accept. Future media types are discouraged from
959      registering any parameter named "q".
960  </t></list>
963   The example
965<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]966  Accept: audio/*; q=0.2, audio/basic
969   &SHOULD; be interpreted as "I prefer audio/basic, but send me any audio
970   type if it is the best available after an 80% mark-down in quality."
973   If no Accept header field is present, then it is assumed that the
974   client accepts all media types. If an Accept header field is present,
975   and if the server cannot send a response which is acceptable
976   according to the combined Accept field value, then the server &SHOULD;
[137]977   send a 406 (Not Acceptable) response.
980   A more elaborate example is
982<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]983  Accept: text/plain; q=0.5, text/html,
984          text/x-dvi; q=0.8, text/x-c
987   Verbally, this would be interpreted as "text/html and text/x-c are
988   the preferred media types, but if they do not exist, then send the
989   text/x-dvi entity, and if that does not exist, send the text/plain
990   entity."
993   Media ranges can be overridden by more specific media ranges or
994   specific media types. If more than one media range applies to a given
995   type, the most specific reference has precedence. For example,
997<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]998  Accept: text/*, text/html, text/html;level=1, */*
1001   have the following precedence:
1003<figure><artwork type="example">
1004    1) text/html;level=1
1005    2) text/html
1006    3) text/*
1007    4) */*
1010   The media type quality factor associated with a given type is
1011   determined by finding the media range with the highest precedence
1012   which matches that type. For example,
1014<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1015  Accept: text/*;q=0.3, text/html;q=0.7, text/html;level=1,
1016          text/html;level=2;q=0.4, */*;q=0.5
1019   would cause the following values to be associated:
1021<figure><artwork type="example">
1022    text/html;level=1         = 1
1023    text/html                 = 0.7
1024    text/plain                = 0.3
1025    image/jpeg                = 0.5
1026    text/html;level=2         = 0.4
1027    text/html;level=3         = 0.7
1030      <x:h>Note:</x:h> A user agent might be provided with a default set of quality
1031      values for certain media ranges. However, unless the user agent is
1032      a closed system which cannot interact with other rendering agents,
1033      this default set ought to be configurable by the user.
1037<section title="Accept-Charset" anchor="header.accept-charset">
1038  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Charset header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1039  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Accept-Charset" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1040  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Charset"/>
[357]1041  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Charset-v"/>
[357]1043   The request-header field "Accept-Charset" can be used to indicate what
[8]1044   character sets are acceptable for the response. This field allows
1045   clients capable of understanding more comprehensive or special-purpose
1046   character sets to signal that capability to a server which is
1047   capable of representing documents in those character sets.
[357]1049<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Charset"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Charset-v"/>
[366]1050  <x:ref>Accept-Charset</x:ref>   = "Accept-Charset" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
[357]1051          <x:ref>Accept-Charset-v</x:ref>
[376]1052  <x:ref>Accept-Charset-v</x:ref> = 1#( ( <x:ref>charset</x:ref> / "*" )
1053                         [ <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> "q=" <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> ] )
1056   Character set values are described in <xref target="character.sets"/>. Each charset &MAY;
1057   be given an associated quality value which represents the user's
1058   preference for that charset. The default value is q=1. An example is
1060<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1061  Accept-Charset: iso-8859-5, unicode-1-1;q=0.8
1064   The special value "*", if present in the Accept-Charset field,
1065   matches every character set (including ISO-8859-1) which is not
1066   mentioned elsewhere in the Accept-Charset field. If no "*" is present
1067   in an Accept-Charset field, then all character sets not explicitly
1068   mentioned get a quality value of 0, except for ISO-8859-1, which gets
1069   a quality value of 1 if not explicitly mentioned.
1072   If no Accept-Charset header is present, the default is that any
1073   character set is acceptable. If an Accept-Charset header is present,
1074   and if the server cannot send a response which is acceptable
1075   according to the Accept-Charset header, then the server &SHOULD; send
[137]1076   an error response with the 406 (Not Acceptable) status code, though
[8]1077   the sending of an unacceptable response is also allowed.
1081<section title="Accept-Encoding" anchor="header.accept-encoding">
1082  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Encoding header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1083  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Accept-Encoding" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1084  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Encoding"/>
[357]1085  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Encoding-v"/>
[229]1086  <x:anchor-alias value="codings"/>
[357]1088   The request-header field "Accept-Encoding" is similar to Accept, but
[8]1089   restricts the content-codings (<xref target="content.codings"/>) that are acceptable in
1090   the response.
[357]1092<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Encoding"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Encoding-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="codings"/>
[366]1093  <x:ref>Accept-Encoding</x:ref>    = "Accept-Encoding" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
[357]1094                     <x:ref>Accept-Encoding-v</x:ref>
1095  <x:ref>Accept-Encoding-v</x:ref>  =
[370]1096                     #( <x:ref>codings</x:ref> [ <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> "q=" <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> ] )
[357]1097  <x:ref>codings</x:ref>            = ( <x:ref>content-coding</x:ref> / "*" )
[248]1100   Each codings value &MAY; be given an associated quality value which
1101   represents the preference for that encoding. The default value is q=1.
[8]1104   Examples of its use are:
1106<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1107  Accept-Encoding: compress, gzip
1108  Accept-Encoding:
1109  Accept-Encoding: *
1110  Accept-Encoding: compress;q=0.5, gzip;q=1.0
1111  Accept-Encoding: gzip;q=1.0, identity; q=0.5, *;q=0
1114   A server tests whether a content-coding is acceptable, according to
1115   an Accept-Encoding field, using these rules:
1116  <list style="numbers">
1117      <t>If the content-coding is one of the content-codings listed in
1118         the Accept-Encoding field, then it is acceptable, unless it is
1119         accompanied by a qvalue of 0. (As defined in <xref target="quality.values"/>, a
1120         qvalue of 0 means "not acceptable.")</t>
1122      <t>The special "*" symbol in an Accept-Encoding field matches any
1123         available content-coding not explicitly listed in the header
1124         field.</t>
1126      <t>If multiple content-codings are acceptable, then the acceptable
1127         content-coding with the highest non-zero qvalue is preferred.</t>
1129      <t>The "identity" content-coding is always acceptable, unless
1130         specifically refused because the Accept-Encoding field includes
1131         "identity;q=0", or because the field includes "*;q=0" and does
1132         not explicitly include the "identity" content-coding. If the
1133         Accept-Encoding field-value is empty, then only the "identity"
1134         encoding is acceptable.</t>
1135  </list>
1138   If an Accept-Encoding field is present in a request, and if the
1139   server cannot send a response which is acceptable according to the
1140   Accept-Encoding header, then the server &SHOULD; send an error response
1141   with the 406 (Not Acceptable) status code.
1144   If no Accept-Encoding field is present in a request, the server &MAY;
1145   assume that the client will accept any content coding. In this case,
1146   if "identity" is one of the available content-codings, then the
1147   server &SHOULD; use the "identity" content-coding, unless it has
1148   additional information that a different content-coding is meaningful
1149   to the client.
1150  <list><t>
1151      <x:h>Note:</x:h> If the request does not include an Accept-Encoding field,
1152      and if the "identity" content-coding is unavailable, then
1153      content-codings commonly understood by HTTP/1.0 clients (i.e.,
1154      "gzip" and "compress") are preferred; some older clients
1155      improperly display messages sent with other content-codings.  The
1156      server might also make this decision based on information about
1157      the particular user-agent or client.
1158    </t><t>
1159      <x:h>Note:</x:h> Most HTTP/1.0 applications do not recognize or obey qvalues
1160      associated with content-codings. This means that qvalues will not
1161      work and are not permitted with x-gzip or x-compress.
1162    </t></list>
1166<section title="Accept-Language" anchor="header.accept-language">
1167  <iref primary="true" item="Accept-Language header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1168  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Accept-Language" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1169  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Language"/>
[357]1170  <x:anchor-alias value="Accept-Language-v"/>
[229]1171  <x:anchor-alias value="language-range"/>
[357]1173   The request-header field "Accept-Language" is similar to Accept, but
[8]1174   restricts the set of natural languages that are preferred as a
1175   response to the request. Language tags are defined in <xref target="language.tags"/>.
[357]1177<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Language"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Accept-Language-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="language-range"/>
[366]1178  <x:ref>Accept-Language</x:ref>   = "Accept-Language" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
[357]1179                    <x:ref>Accept-Language-v</x:ref>
1180  <x:ref>Accept-Language-v</x:ref> =
[370]1181                    1#( <x:ref>language-range</x:ref> [ <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> "q=" <x:ref>qvalue</x:ref> ] )
[357]1182  <x:ref>language-range</x:ref>    =
[303]1183            &lt;language-range, defined in <xref target="RFC4647" x:fmt="," x:sec="2.1"/>&gt;
[303]1186   Each language-range can be given an associated quality value which
[8]1187   represents an estimate of the user's preference for the languages
1188   specified by that range. The quality value defaults to "q=1". For
1189   example,
1191<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1192  Accept-Language: da, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7
1195   would mean: "I prefer Danish, but will accept British English and
[303]1196   other types of English."
1199   For matching, the "Basic Filtering" matching scheme, defined in
1200   <xref target="RFC4647" x:sec="3.3.1" x:fmt="of"/>, is used:
1202<x:blockquote cite="">
1203  <t>
1204     A language range matches a
1205     particular language tag if, in a case-insensitive comparison, it
1206     exactly equals the tag, or if it exactly equals a prefix of the tag
1207     such that the first character following the prefix is "-".
1208  </t>
[8]1211   The special range "*", if present in the Accept-Language field,
1212   matches every tag not matched by any other range present in the
1213   Accept-Language field.
1214  <list><t>
1215      <x:h>Note:</x:h> This use of a prefix matching rule does not imply that
1216      language tags are assigned to languages in such a way that it is
1217      always true that if a user understands a language with a certain
1218      tag, then this user will also understand all languages with tags
1219      for which this tag is a prefix. The prefix rule simply allows the
1220      use of prefix tags if this is the case.
1221  </t></list>
1224   The language quality factor assigned to a language-tag by the
1225   Accept-Language field is the quality value of the longest language-range
1226   in the field that matches the language-tag. If no language-range
1227   in the field matches the tag, the language quality factor
1228   assigned is 0. If no Accept-Language header is present in the
1229   request, the server
1230   &SHOULD; assume that all languages are equally acceptable. If an
1231   Accept-Language header is present, then all languages which are
1232   assigned a quality factor greater than 0 are acceptable.
1235   It might be contrary to the privacy expectations of the user to send
1236   an Accept-Language header with the complete linguistic preferences of
1237   the user in every request. For a discussion of this issue, see
1238   <xref target=""/>.
1241   As intelligibility is highly dependent on the individual user, it is
1242   recommended that client applications make the choice of linguistic
1243   preference available to the user. If the choice is not made
1244   available, then the Accept-Language header field &MUST-NOT; be given in
1245   the request.
1246  <list><t>
1247      <x:h>Note:</x:h> When making the choice of linguistic preference available to
1248      the user, we remind implementors of  the fact that users are not
1249      familiar with the details of language matching as described above,
1250      and should provide appropriate guidance. As an example, users
1251      might assume that on selecting "en-gb", they will be served any
1252      kind of English document if British English is not available. A
1253      user agent might suggest in such a case to add "en" to get the
1254      best matching behavior.
1255  </t></list>
1259<section title="Content-Encoding" anchor="header.content-encoding">
1260  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Encoding header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1261  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-Encoding" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1262  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Encoding"/>
[357]1263  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Encoding-v"/>
[357]1265   The entity-header field "Content-Encoding" is used as a modifier to the
[8]1266   media-type. When present, its value indicates what additional content
1267   codings have been applied to the entity-body, and thus what decoding
1268   mechanisms must be applied in order to obtain the media-type
1269   referenced by the Content-Type header field. Content-Encoding is
1270   primarily used to allow a document to be compressed without losing
1271   the identity of its underlying media type.
[357]1273<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Encoding"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Encoding-v"/>
[366]1274  <x:ref>Content-Encoding</x:ref>   = "Content-Encoding" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Content-Encoding-v</x:ref>
[357]1275  <x:ref>Content-Encoding-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>content-coding</x:ref>
1278   Content codings are defined in <xref target="content.codings"/>. An example of its use is
1280<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1281  Content-Encoding: gzip
1284   The content-coding is a characteristic of the entity identified by
1285   the Request-URI. Typically, the entity-body is stored with this
1286   encoding and is only decoded before rendering or analogous usage.
1287   However, a non-transparent proxy &MAY; modify the content-coding if the
1288   new coding is known to be acceptable to the recipient, unless the
1289   "no-transform" cache-control directive is present in the message.
1292   If the content-coding of an entity is not "identity", then the
1293   response &MUST; include a Content-Encoding entity-header (<xref target="header.content-encoding"/>)
1294   that lists the non-identity content-coding(s) used.
1297   If the content-coding of an entity in a request message is not
1298   acceptable to the origin server, the server &SHOULD; respond with a
1299   status code of 415 (Unsupported Media Type).
1302   If multiple encodings have been applied to an entity, the content
1303   codings &MUST; be listed in the order in which they were applied.
1304   Additional information about the encoding parameters &MAY; be provided
1305   by other entity-header fields not defined by this specification.
1309<section title="Content-Language" anchor="header.content-language">
1310  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Language header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1311  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-Language" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1312  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Language"/>
[357]1313  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Language-v"/>
[357]1315   The entity-header field "Content-Language" describes the natural
[8]1316   language(s) of the intended audience for the enclosed entity. Note
1317   that this might not be equivalent to all the languages used within
1318   the entity-body.
[357]1320<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Language"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Language-v"/>
[366]1321  <x:ref>Content-Language</x:ref>   = "Content-Language" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Content-Language-v</x:ref>
[357]1322  <x:ref>Content-Language-v</x:ref> = 1#<x:ref>language-tag</x:ref>
1325   Language tags are defined in <xref target="language.tags"/>. The primary purpose of
1326   Content-Language is to allow a user to identify and differentiate
1327   entities according to the user's own preferred language. Thus, if the
1328   body content is intended only for a Danish-literate audience, the
1329   appropriate field is
1331<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1332  Content-Language: da
1335   If no Content-Language is specified, the default is that the content
1336   is intended for all language audiences. This might mean that the
1337   sender does not consider it to be specific to any natural language,
1338   or that the sender does not know for which language it is intended.
1341   Multiple languages &MAY; be listed for content that is intended for
1342   multiple audiences. For example, a rendition of the "Treaty of
1343   Waitangi," presented simultaneously in the original Maori and English
1344   versions, would call for
1346<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1347  Content-Language: mi, en
1350   However, just because multiple languages are present within an entity
1351   does not mean that it is intended for multiple linguistic audiences.
1352   An example would be a beginner's language primer, such as "A First
1353   Lesson in Latin," which is clearly intended to be used by an
1354   English-literate audience. In this case, the Content-Language would
1355   properly only include "en".
1358   Content-Language &MAY; be applied to any media type -- it is not
1359   limited to textual documents.
1363<section title="Content-Location" anchor="header.content-location">
1364  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Location header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1365  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-Location" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1366  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Location"/>
[357]1367  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Location-v"/>
[357]1369   The entity-header field "Content-Location" &MAY; be used to supply the
[8]1370   resource location for the entity enclosed in the message when that
1371   entity is accessible from a location separate from the requested
1372   resource's URI. A server &SHOULD; provide a Content-Location for the
1373   variant corresponding to the response entity; especially in the case
1374   where a resource has multiple entities associated with it, and those
1375   entities actually have separate locations by which they might be
1376   individually accessed, the server &SHOULD; provide a Content-Location
1377   for the particular variant which is returned.
[357]1379<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Location"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Location-v"/>
[366]1380  <x:ref>Content-Location</x:ref>   = "Content-Location" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
[357]1381                    <x:ref>Content-Location-v</x:ref>
1382  <x:ref>Content-Location-v</x:ref> =
[374]1383                    <x:ref>absolute-URI</x:ref> / <x:ref>relativeURI</x:ref>
1386   The value of Content-Location also defines the base URI for the
1387   entity.
1390   The Content-Location value is not a replacement for the original
1391   requested URI; it is only a statement of the location of the resource
1392   corresponding to this particular entity at the time of the request.
1393   Future requests &MAY; specify the Content-Location URI as the request-URI
1394   if the desire is to identify the source of that particular
1395   entity.
1398   A cache cannot assume that an entity with a Content-Location
1399   different from the URI used to retrieve it can be used to respond to
1400   later requests on that Content-Location URI. However, the Content-Location
1401   can be used to differentiate between multiple entities
[115]1402   retrieved from a single requested resource, as described in &caching-neg-resp;.
1405   If the Content-Location is a relative URI, the relative URI is
1406   interpreted relative to the Request-URI.
1409   The meaning of the Content-Location header in PUT or POST requests is
1410   undefined; servers are free to ignore it in those cases.
1414<section title="Content-MD5" anchor="header.content-md5">
1415  <iref primary="true" item="Content-MD5 header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1416  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-MD5" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1417  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-MD5"/>
[357]1418  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-MD5-v"/>
[357]1420   The entity-header field "Content-MD5", as defined in <xref target="RFC1864"/>, is
[8]1421   an MD5 digest of the entity-body for the purpose of providing an
1422   end-to-end message integrity check (MIC) of the entity-body. (Note: a
1423   MIC is good for detecting accidental modification of the entity-body
1424   in transit, but is not proof against malicious attacks.)
[357]1426<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-MD5"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-MD5-v"/>
[366]1427  <x:ref>Content-MD5</x:ref>   = "Content-MD5" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Content-MD5-v</x:ref>
[357]1428  <x:ref>Content-MD5-v</x:ref> = &lt;base64 of 128 bit MD5 digest as per <xref target="RFC1864"/>&gt;
1431   The Content-MD5 header field &MAY; be generated by an origin server or
1432   client to function as an integrity check of the entity-body. Only
1433   origin servers or clients &MAY; generate the Content-MD5 header field;
1434   proxies and gateways &MUST-NOT; generate it, as this would defeat its
1435   value as an end-to-end integrity check. Any recipient of the entity-body,
1436   including gateways and proxies, &MAY; check that the digest value
1437   in this header field matches that of the entity-body as received.
1440   The MD5 digest is computed based on the content of the entity-body,
1441   including any content-coding that has been applied, but not including
1442   any transfer-encoding applied to the message-body. If the message is
1443   received with a transfer-encoding, that encoding &MUST; be removed
1444   prior to checking the Content-MD5 value against the received entity.
1447   This has the result that the digest is computed on the octets of the
1448   entity-body exactly as, and in the order that, they would be sent if
1449   no transfer-encoding were being applied.
1452   HTTP extends RFC 1864 to permit the digest to be computed for MIME
1453   composite media-types (e.g., multipart/* and message/rfc822), but
1454   this does not change how the digest is computed as defined in the
1455   preceding paragraph.
1458   There are several consequences of this. The entity-body for composite
1459   types &MAY; contain many body-parts, each with its own MIME and HTTP
1460   headers (including Content-MD5, Content-Transfer-Encoding, and
1461   Content-Encoding headers). If a body-part has a Content-Transfer-Encoding
1462   or Content-Encoding header, it is assumed that the content
1463   of the body-part has had the encoding applied, and the body-part is
1464   included in the Content-MD5 digest as is -- i.e., after the
1465   application. The Transfer-Encoding header field is not allowed within
1466   body-parts.
1469   Conversion of all line breaks to CRLF &MUST-NOT; be done before
1470   computing or checking the digest: the line break convention used in
1471   the text actually transmitted &MUST; be left unaltered when computing
1472   the digest.
1473  <list><t>
1474      <x:h>Note:</x:h> while the definition of Content-MD5 is exactly the same for
1475      HTTP as in RFC 1864 for MIME entity-bodies, there are several ways
1476      in which the application of Content-MD5 to HTTP entity-bodies
1477      differs from its application to MIME entity-bodies. One is that
1478      HTTP, unlike MIME, does not use Content-Transfer-Encoding, and
1479      does use Transfer-Encoding and Content-Encoding. Another is that
1480      HTTP more frequently uses binary content types than MIME, so it is
1481      worth noting that, in such cases, the byte order used to compute
1482      the digest is the transmission byte order defined for the type.
1483      Lastly, HTTP allows transmission of text types with any of several
1484      line break conventions and not just the canonical form using CRLF.
1485  </t></list>
1489<section title="Content-Type" anchor="header.content-type">
1490  <iref primary="true" item="Content-Type header" x:for-anchor=""/>
1491  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="Content-Type" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]1492  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Type"/>
[357]1493  <x:anchor-alias value="Content-Type-v"/>
[357]1495   The entity-header field "Content-Type" indicates the media type of the
[8]1496   entity-body sent to the recipient or, in the case of the HEAD method,
1497   the media type that would have been sent had the request been a GET.
[357]1499<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Type"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="Content-Type-v"/>
[366]1500  <x:ref>Content-Type</x:ref>   = "Content-Type" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>Content-Type-v</x:ref>
[357]1501  <x:ref>Content-Type-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>media-type</x:ref>
1504   Media types are defined in <xref target="media.types"/>. An example of the field is
1506<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]1507  Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-4
1510   Further discussion of methods for identifying the media type of an
1511   entity is provided in <xref target="type"/>.
[29]1517<section title="IANA Considerations" anchor="IANA.considerations">
[253]1518<section title="Message Header Registration" anchor="message.header.registration">
1520   The Message Header Registry located at <eref target=""/> should be updated
1521   with the permanent registrations below (see <xref target="RFC3864"/>):
[253]1523<!--AUTOGENERATED FROM extract-header-defs.xslt, do not edit manually-->
[290]1524<texttable align="left" suppress-title="true" anchor="iana.header.registration.table">
[253]1525   <ttcol>Header Field Name</ttcol>
1526   <ttcol>Protocol</ttcol>
1527   <ttcol>Status</ttcol>
1528   <ttcol>Reference</ttcol>
1530   <c>Accept</c>
1531   <c>http</c>
1532   <c>standard</c>
1533   <c>
1534      <xref target="header.accept"/>
1535   </c>
1536   <c>Accept-Charset</c>
1537   <c>http</c>
1538   <c>standard</c>
1539   <c>
1540      <xref target="header.accept-charset"/>
1541   </c>
1542   <c>Accept-Encoding</c>
1543   <c>http</c>
1544   <c>standard</c>
1545   <c>
1546      <xref target="header.accept-encoding"/>
1547   </c>
1548   <c>Accept-Language</c>
1549   <c>http</c>
1550   <c>standard</c>
1551   <c>
1552      <xref target="header.accept-language"/>
1553   </c>
1554   <c>Content-Disposition</c>
1555   <c>http</c>
[291]1556   <c/>
[253]1557   <c>
1558      <xref target="content-disposition"/>
1559   </c>
1560   <c>Content-Encoding</c>
1561   <c>http</c>
1562   <c>standard</c>
1563   <c>
1564      <xref target="header.content-encoding"/>
1565   </c>
1566   <c>Content-Language</c>
1567   <c>http</c>
1568   <c>standard</c>
1569   <c>
1570      <xref target="header.content-language"/>
1571   </c>
1572   <c>Content-Location</c>
1573   <c>http</c>
1574   <c>standard</c>
1575   <c>
1576      <xref target="header.content-location"/>
1577   </c>
1578   <c>Content-MD5</c>
1579   <c>http</c>
1580   <c>standard</c>
1581   <c>
1582      <xref target="header.content-md5"/>
1583   </c>
1584   <c>Content-Type</c>
1585   <c>http</c>
1586   <c>standard</c>
1587   <c>
1588      <xref target="header.content-type"/>
1589   </c>
[291]1590   <c>MIME-Version</c>
1591   <c>http</c>
1592   <c/>
1593   <c>
1594      <xref target="mime-version"/>
1595   </c>
[290]1599   The change controller is: "IETF ( - Internet Engineering Task Force".
1604<section title="Security Considerations" anchor="security.considerations">
1606   This section is meant to inform application developers, information
1607   providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
1608   described by this document. The discussion does not include
1609   definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
1610   some suggestions for reducing security risks.
1613<section title="Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers" anchor="">
1615   Accept request-headers can reveal information about the user to all
1616   servers which are accessed. The Accept-Language header in particular
1617   can reveal information the user would consider to be of a private
1618   nature, because the understanding of particular languages is often
1619   strongly correlated to the membership of a particular ethnic group.
1620   User agents which offer the option to configure the contents of an
1621   Accept-Language header to be sent in every request are strongly
1622   encouraged to let the configuration process include a message which
1623   makes the user aware of the loss of privacy involved.
1626   An approach that limits the loss of privacy would be for a user agent
1627   to omit the sending of Accept-Language headers by default, and to ask
1628   the user whether or not to start sending Accept-Language headers to a
1629   server if it detects, by looking for any Vary response-header fields
1630   generated by the server, that such sending could improve the quality
1631   of service.
1634   Elaborate user-customized accept header fields sent in every request,
1635   in particular if these include quality values, can be used by servers
1636   as relatively reliable and long-lived user identifiers. Such user
1637   identifiers would allow content providers to do click-trail tracking,
1638   and would allow collaborating content providers to match cross-server
1639   click-trails or form submissions of individual users. Note that for
1640   many users not behind a proxy, the network address of the host
1641   running the user agent will also serve as a long-lived user
1642   identifier. In environments where proxies are used to enhance
1643   privacy, user agents ought to be conservative in offering accept
1644   header configuration options to end users. As an extreme privacy
1645   measure, proxies could filter the accept headers in relayed requests.
1646   General purpose user agents which provide a high degree of header
1647   configurability &SHOULD; warn users about the loss of privacy which can
1648   be involved.
1652<section title="Content-Disposition Issues" anchor="content-disposition.issues">
[269]1654   <xref target="RFC2183"/>, from which the often implemented Content-Disposition
[8]1655   (see <xref target="content-disposition"/>) header in HTTP is derived, has a number of very
1656   serious security considerations. Content-Disposition is not part of
1657   the HTTP standard, but since it is widely implemented, we are
[269]1658   documenting its use and risks for implementors. See <xref target="RFC2183" x:fmt="of" x:sec="5"/>
1659   for details.
1665<section title="Acknowledgments" anchor="ack">
[119]1670<references title="Normative References">
[121]1672<reference anchor="ISO-8859-1">
1673  <front>
1674    <title>
1675     Information technology -- 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets -- Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1
1676    </title>
1677    <author>
1678      <organization>International Organization for Standardization</organization>
1679    </author>
1680    <date year="1998"/>
1681  </front>
1682  <seriesInfo name="ISO/IEC" value="8859-1:1998"/>
[31]1685<reference anchor="Part1">
[119]1686  <front>
1687    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and Message Parsing</title>
1688    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1689      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1690      <address><email></email></address>
1691    </author>
1692    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1693      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1694      <address><email></email></address>
1695    </author>
1696    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1697      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1698      <address><email></email></address>
1699    </author>
1700    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1701      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1702      <address><email></email></address>
1703    </author>
1704    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1705      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1706      <address><email></email></address>
1707    </author>
1708    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1709      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1710      <address><email></email></address>
1711    </author>
1712    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1713      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1714      <address><email></email></address>
1715    </author>
1716    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1717      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1718      <address><email></email></address>
1719    </author>
1720    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1721      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1722      <address><email></email></address>
1723    </author>
1724    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1725  </front>
1726  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1727  <x:source href="p1-messaging.xml" basename="p1-messaging"/>
1730<reference anchor="Part2">
[119]1731  <front>
1732    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 2: Message Semantics</title>
1733    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1734      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1735      <address><email></email></address>
1736    </author>
1737    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1738      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1739      <address><email></email></address>
1740    </author>
1741    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1742      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1743      <address><email></email></address>
1744    </author>
1745    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1746      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1747      <address><email></email></address>
1748    </author>
1749    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1750      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1751      <address><email></email></address>
1752    </author>
1753    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1754      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1755      <address><email></email></address>
1756    </author>
1757    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1758      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1759      <address><email></email></address>
1760    </author>
1761    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1762      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1763      <address><email></email></address>
1764    </author>
1765    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1766      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1767      <address><email></email></address>
1768    </author>
1769    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1770  </front>
1771  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p2-semantics-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1772  <x:source href="p2-semantics.xml" basename="p2-semantics"/>
1775<reference anchor="Part4">
[119]1776  <front>
1777    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 4: Conditional Requests</title>
1778    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1779      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1780      <address><email></email></address>
1781    </author>
1782    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1783      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1784      <address><email></email></address>
1785    </author>
1786    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1787      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1788      <address><email></email></address>
1789    </author>
1790    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1791      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1792      <address><email></email></address>
1793    </author>
1794    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1795      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1796      <address><email></email></address>
1797    </author>
1798    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1799      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1800      <address><email></email></address>
1801    </author>
1802    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1803      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1804      <address><email></email></address>
1805    </author>
1806    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1807      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1808      <address><email></email></address>
1809    </author>
1810    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1811      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1812      <address><email></email></address>
1813    </author>
1814    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1815  </front>
1816  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p4-conditional-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1817  <x:source href="p4-conditional.xml" basename="p4-conditional"/>
1820<reference anchor="Part5">
[119]1821  <front>
1822    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 5: Range Requests and Partial Responses</title>
1823    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1824      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1825      <address><email></email></address>
1826    </author>
1827    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1828      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1829      <address><email></email></address>
1830    </author>
1831    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1832      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1833      <address><email></email></address>
1834    </author>
1835    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1836      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1837      <address><email></email></address>
1838    </author>
1839    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1840      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1841      <address><email></email></address>
1842    </author>
1843    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1844      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1845      <address><email></email></address>
1846    </author>
1847    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1848      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1849      <address><email></email></address>
1850    </author>
1851    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1852      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1853      <address><email></email></address>
1854    </author>
1855    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1856      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1857      <address><email></email></address>
1858    </author>
1859    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1860  </front>
1861  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p5-range-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1862  <x:source href="p5-range.xml" basename="p5-range"/>
1865<reference anchor="Part6">
[119]1866  <front>
1867    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</title>
1868    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding" role="editor">
1869      <organization abbrev="Day Software">Day Software</organization>
1870      <address><email></email></address>
1871    </author>
1872    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
1873      <organization>One Laptop per Child</organization>
1874      <address><email></email></address>
1875    </author>
1876    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
1877      <organization abbrev="HP">Hewlett-Packard Company</organization>
1878      <address><email></email></address>
1879    </author>
1880    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
1881      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1882      <address><email></email></address>
1883    </author>
1884    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
1885      <organization abbrev="Adobe Systems">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</organization>
1886      <address><email></email></address>
1887    </author>
1888    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="Paul J. Leach">
1889      <organization abbrev="Microsoft">Microsoft Corporation</organization>
1890      <address><email></email></address>
1891    </author>
1892    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
1893      <organization abbrev="W3C/MIT">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1894      <address><email></email></address>
1895    </author>
1896    <author initials="Y." surname="Lafon" fullname="Yves Lafon" role="editor">
1897      <organization abbrev="W3C">World Wide Web Consortium</organization>
1898      <address><email></email></address>
1899    </author>
1900    <author initials="J. F." surname="Reschke" fullname="Julian F. Reschke" role="editor">
1901      <organization abbrev="greenbytes">greenbytes GmbH</organization>
1902      <address><email></email></address>
1903    </author>
1904    <date month="&ID-MONTH;" year="&ID-YEAR;"/>
1905  </front>
1906  <seriesInfo name="Internet-Draft" value="draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-&ID-VERSION;"/>
1907  <x:source href="p6-cache.xml" basename="p6-cache"/>
[132]1910<reference anchor="RFC1766">
1911  <front>
1912    <title abbrev="Language Tag">Tags for the Identification of Languages</title>
1913    <author initials="H." surname="Alvestrand" fullname="Harald Tveit Alvestrand">
1914      <organization>UNINETT</organization>
1915      <address><email></email></address>
1916    </author>
1917    <date month="March" year="1995"/>
1918  </front>
1919  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1766"/>
[131]1922<reference anchor="RFC1864">
1923  <front>
1924    <title abbrev="Content-MD5 Header Field">The Content-MD5 Header Field</title>
1925    <author initials="J." surname="Myers" fullname="John G. Myers">
1926      <organization>Carnegie Mellon University</organization>
1927      <address><email></email></address>
1928    </author>
1929    <author initials="M." surname="Rose" fullname="Marshall T. Rose">
1930      <organization>Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.</organization>
1931      <address><email></email></address>
1932    </author>
1933    <date month="October" year="1995"/>
1934  </front>
1935  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1864"/>
[122]1938<reference anchor="RFC1950">
1939  <front>
1940    <title>ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3</title>
1941    <author initials="L.P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
1942      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
1943      <address><email></email></address>
1944    </author>
1945    <author initials="J-L." surname="Gailly" fullname="Jean-Loup Gailly">
1946      <organization/>
1947    </author>
1948    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
1949  </front>
1950  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1950"/>
1951  <annotation>
[277]1952    RFC 1950 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
[122]1953    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
[277]1954    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
1955    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
1956    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
[122]1957  </annotation>
1960<reference anchor="RFC1951">
1961  <front>
1962    <title>DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3</title>
1963    <author initials="P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
1964      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
1965      <address><email></email></address>
1966    </author>
1967    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
1968  </front>
1969  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1951"/>
1970  <annotation>
[277]1971    RFC 1951 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
[122]1972    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
[277]1973    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
1974    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
1975    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
[122]1976  </annotation>
1979<reference anchor="RFC1952">
1980  <front>
1981    <title>GZIP file format specification version 4.3</title>
1982    <author initials="P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
1983      <organization>Aladdin Enterprises</organization>
1984      <address><email></email></address>
1985    </author>
1986    <author initials="J-L." surname="Gailly" fullname="Jean-Loup Gailly">
1987      <organization/>
1988      <address><email></email></address>
1989    </author>
1990    <author initials="M." surname="Adler" fullname="Mark Adler">
1991      <organization/>
1992      <address><email></email></address>
1993    </author>
1994    <author initials="L.P." surname="Deutsch" fullname="L. Peter Deutsch">
1995      <organization/>
1996      <address><email></email></address>
1997    </author>
1998    <author initials="G." surname="Randers-Pehrson" fullname="Glenn Randers-Pehrson">
1999      <organization/>
2000      <address><email></email></address>
2001    </author>
2002    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
2003  </front>
2004  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1952"/>
2005  <annotation>
[277]2006    RFC 1952 is an Informational RFC, thus it may be less stable than
[122]2007    this specification. On the other hand, this downward reference was
[277]2008    present since the publication of RFC 2068 in 1997 (<xref target="RFC2068"/>),
2009    therefore it is unlikely to cause problems in practice. See also
2010    <xref target="BCP97"/>.
[122]2011  </annotation>
[131]2014<reference anchor="RFC2045">
2015  <front>
2016    <title abbrev="Internet Message Bodies">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</title>
2017    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
2018      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
2019      <address><email></email></address>
2020    </author>
2021    <author initials="N.S." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
2022      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
2023      <address><email></email></address>
2024    </author>
2025    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
2026  </front>
2027  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2045"/>
2030<reference anchor="RFC2046">
2031  <front>
2032    <title abbrev="Media Types">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</title>
2033    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
2034      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
2035      <address><email></email></address>
2036    </author>
2037    <author initials="N." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
2038      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
2039      <address><email></email></address>
2040    </author>
2041    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
2042  </front>
2043  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2046"/>
[119]2046<reference anchor="RFC2119">
2047  <front>
2048    <title>Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</title>
2049    <author initials="S." surname="Bradner" fullname="Scott Bradner">
2050      <organization>Harvard University</organization>
2051      <address><email></email></address>
2052    </author>
2053    <date month="March" year="1997"/>
2054  </front>
2055  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="14"/>
2056  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2119"/>
[303]2059<reference anchor='RFC4647'>
2060  <front>
2061    <title>Matching of Language Tags</title>
2062    <author initials='A.' surname='Phillips' fullname='Addison Phillips' role="editor">
2063      <organization>Yahoo! Inc.</organization>
2064      <address><email></email></address>
2065    </author>
2066    <author initials='M.' surname='Davis' fullname='Mark Davis' role="editor">
2067      <organization>Google</organization>
2068      <address><email></email></address>
2069    </author>
2070    <date year='2006' month='September' />
2071  </front>
2072  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='47' />
2073  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='4647' />
2078<references title="Informative References">
[129]2080<reference anchor="RFC1945">
2081  <front>
2082    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.0">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0</title>
2083    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
2084      <organization>MIT, Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2085      <address><email></email></address>
2086    </author>
2087    <author initials="R.T." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
2088      <organization>University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science</organization>
2089      <address><email></email></address>
2090    </author>
2091    <author initials="H.F." surname="Nielsen" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
2092      <organization>W3 Consortium, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2093      <address><email></email></address>
2094    </author>
2095    <date month="May" year="1996"/>
2096  </front>
2097  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="1945"/>
2100<reference anchor="RFC2049">
2101  <front>
2102    <title abbrev="MIME Conformance">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Five: Conformance Criteria and Examples</title>
2103    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="Ned Freed">
2104      <organization>Innosoft International, Inc.</organization>
2105      <address><email></email></address>
2106    </author>
2107    <author initials="N.S." surname="Borenstein" fullname="Nathaniel S. Borenstein">
2108      <organization>First Virtual Holdings</organization>
2109      <address><email></email></address>
2110    </author>
2111    <date month="November" year="1996"/>
2112  </front>
2113  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2049"/>
[133]2116<reference anchor="RFC2068">
2117  <front>
2118    <title abbrev="HTTP/1.1">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
2119    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="Roy T. Fielding">
2120      <organization>University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science</organization>
2121      <address><email></email></address>
2122    </author>
2123    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="Jim Gettys">
2124      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2125      <address><email></email></address>
2126    </author>
2127    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="Jeffrey C. Mogul">
2128      <organization>Digital Equipment Corporation, Western Research Laboratory</organization>
2129      <address><email></email></address>
2130    </author>
2131    <author initials="H." surname="Nielsen" fullname="Henrik Frystyk Nielsen">
2132      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2133      <address><email></email></address>
2134    </author>
2135    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="Tim Berners-Lee">
2136      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2137      <address><email></email></address>
2138    </author>
2139    <date month="January" year="1997"/>
2140  </front>
2141  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2068"/>
[129]2144<reference anchor="RFC2076">
2145  <front>
2146    <title abbrev="Internet Message Headers">Common Internet Message Headers</title>
2147    <author initials="J." surname="Palme" fullname="Jacob Palme">
2148      <organization>Stockholm University/KTH</organization>
2149      <address><email></email></address>
2150    </author>
2151    <date month="February" year="1997"/>
2152  </front>
2153  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2076"/>
2156<reference anchor="RFC2183">
2157  <front>
2158    <title abbrev="Content-Disposition">Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field</title>
2159    <author initials="R." surname="Troost" fullname="Rens Troost">
2160      <organization>New Century Systems</organization>
2161      <address><email></email></address>
2162    </author>
2163    <author initials="S." surname="Dorner" fullname="Steve Dorner">
2164      <organization>QUALCOMM Incorporated</organization>
2165      <address><email></email></address>
2166    </author>
2167    <author initials="K." surname="Moore" fullname="Keith Moore">
2168      <organization>Department of Computer Science</organization>
2169      <address><email></email></address>
2170    </author>
2171    <date month="August" year="1997"/>
2172  </front>
2173  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2183"/>
2176<reference anchor="RFC2277">
2177  <front>
2178    <title abbrev="Charset Policy">IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages</title>
2179    <author initials="H.T." surname="Alvestrand" fullname="Harald Tveit Alvestrand">
2180      <organization>UNINETT</organization>
2181      <address><email></email></address>
2182    </author>
2183    <date month="January" year="1998"/>
2184  </front>
2185  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="18"/>
2186  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2277"/>
2189<reference anchor="RFC2388">
2190  <front>
2191    <title abbrev="multipart/form-data">Returning Values from Forms:  multipart/form-data</title>
2192    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="Larry Masinter">
2193      <organization>Xerox Palo Alto Research Center</organization>
2194      <address><email></email></address>
2195    </author>
2196    <date year="1998" month="August"/>
2197  </front>
2198  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2388"/>
2201<reference anchor="RFC2557">
2202  <front>
2203    <title abbrev="MIME Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents">MIME Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML (MHTML)</title>
2204    <author initials="F." surname="Palme" fullname="Jacob Palme">
2205      <organization>Stockholm University and KTH</organization>
2206      <address><email></email></address>
2207    </author>
2208    <author initials="A." surname="Hopmann" fullname="Alex Hopmann">
2209      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2210      <address><email></email></address>
2211    </author>
2212    <author initials="N." surname="Shelness" fullname="Nick Shelness">
2213      <organization>Lotus Development Corporation</organization>
2214      <address><email></email></address>
2215    </author>
2216    <author initials="E." surname="Stefferud" fullname="Einar Stefferud">
2217      <organization/>
2218      <address><email></email></address>
2219    </author>
2220    <date year="1999" month="March"/>
2221  </front>
2222  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2557"/>
[119]2225<reference anchor="RFC2616">
2226  <front>
2227    <title>Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</title>
2228    <author initials="R." surname="Fielding" fullname="R. Fielding">
2229      <organization>University of California, Irvine</organization>
2230      <address><email></email></address>
2231    </author>
2232    <author initials="J." surname="Gettys" fullname="J. Gettys">
2233      <organization>W3C</organization>
2234      <address><email></email></address>
2235    </author>
2236    <author initials="J." surname="Mogul" fullname="J. Mogul">
2237      <organization>Compaq Computer Corporation</organization>
2238      <address><email></email></address>
2239    </author>
2240    <author initials="H." surname="Frystyk" fullname="H. Frystyk">
2241      <organization>MIT Laboratory for Computer Science</organization>
2242      <address><email></email></address>
2243    </author>
2244    <author initials="L." surname="Masinter" fullname="L. Masinter">
2245      <organization>Xerox Corporation</organization>
2246      <address><email></email></address>
2247    </author>
2248    <author initials="P." surname="Leach" fullname="P. Leach">
2249      <organization>Microsoft Corporation</organization>
2250      <address><email></email></address>
2251    </author>
2252    <author initials="T." surname="Berners-Lee" fullname="T. Berners-Lee">
2253      <organization>W3C</organization>
2254      <address><email></email></address>
2255    </author>
2256    <date month="June" year="1999"/>
2257  </front>
2258  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="2616"/>
[129]2261<reference anchor="RFC3629">
2262  <front>
2263    <title>UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646</title>
2264    <author initials="F." surname="Yergeau" fullname="F. Yergeau">
2265      <organization>Alis Technologies</organization>
2266      <address><email></email></address>
2267    </author>
2268    <date month="November" year="2003"/>
2269  </front>
2270  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="3629"/>
2271  <seriesInfo name="STD" value="63"/>
[253]2274<reference anchor='RFC3864'>
2275  <front>
2276    <title>Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields</title>
2277    <author initials='G.' surname='Klyne' fullname='G. Klyne'>
2278      <organization>Nine by Nine</organization>
2279      <address><email></email></address>
2280    </author>
2281    <author initials='M.' surname='Nottingham' fullname='M. Nottingham'>
2282      <organization>BEA Systems</organization>
2283      <address><email></email></address>
2284    </author>
2285    <author initials='J.' surname='Mogul' fullname='J. Mogul'>
2286      <organization>HP Labs</organization>
2287      <address><email></email></address>
2288    </author>
2289    <date year='2004' month='September' />
2290  </front>
2291  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='90' />
2292  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='3864' />
[200]2295<reference anchor="RFC4288">
2296  <front>
2297    <title>Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures</title>
2298    <author initials="N." surname="Freed" fullname="N. Freed">
2299      <organization>Sun Microsystems</organization>
2300      <address>
2301        <email></email>
2302      </address>
2303    </author>
2304    <author initials="J." surname="Klensin" fullname="J. Klensin">
2305      <organization/>
2306      <address>
2307        <email></email>
2308      </address>
2309    </author>
2310    <date year="2005" month="December"/>
2311  </front>
2312  <seriesInfo name="BCP" value="13"/>
2313  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="4288"/>
[327]2316<reference anchor="RFC5322">
2317  <front>
2318    <title>Internet Message Format</title>
2319    <author initials="P." surname="Resnick" fullname="P. Resnick">
2320      <organization>Qualcomm Incorporated</organization>
2321    </author>
2322    <date year="2008" month="October"/>
2323  </front>
2324  <seriesInfo name="RFC" value="5322"/>
[277]2327<reference anchor='BCP97'>
2328  <front>
2329    <title>Handling Normative References to Standards-Track Documents</title>
2330    <author initials='J.' surname='Klensin' fullname='J. Klensin'>
2331      <organization />
2332      <address>
2333        <email></email>
2334      </address>
2335    </author>
2336    <author initials='S.' surname='Hartman' fullname='S. Hartman'>
2337      <organization>MIT</organization>
2338      <address>
2339        <email></email>
2340      </address>
2341    </author>
2342    <date year='2007' month='June' />
2343  </front>
2344  <seriesInfo name='BCP' value='97' />
2345  <seriesInfo name='RFC' value='4897' />
[8]2351<section title="Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities" anchor="differences.between.http.entities.and.rfc.2045.entities">
[327]2353   HTTP/1.1 uses many of the constructs defined for Internet Mail (<xref target="RFC5322"/>) and the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME <xref target="RFC2045"/>) to
[8]2354   allow entities to be transmitted in an open variety of
2355   representations and with extensible mechanisms. However, RFC 2045
2356   discusses mail, and HTTP has a few features that are different from
2357   those described in RFC 2045. These differences were carefully chosen
2358   to optimize performance over binary connections, to allow greater
2359   freedom in the use of new media types, to make date comparisons
2360   easier, and to acknowledge the practice of some early HTTP servers
2361   and clients.
2364   This appendix describes specific areas where HTTP differs from RFC
2365   2045. Proxies and gateways to strict MIME environments &SHOULD; be
2366   aware of these differences and provide the appropriate conversions
2367   where necessary. Proxies and gateways from MIME environments to HTTP
2368   also need to be aware of the differences because some conversions
2369   might be required.
[8]2372<section title="MIME-Version" anchor="mime-version">
[291]2373  <iref primary="true" item="MIME-Version header" x:for-anchor=""/>
2374  <iref primary="true" item="Headers" subitem="MIME-Version" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]2375  <x:anchor-alias value="MIME-Version"/>
[357]2376  <x:anchor-alias value="MIME-Version-v"/>
2378   HTTP is not a MIME-compliant protocol. However, HTTP/1.1 messages &MAY;
2379   include a single MIME-Version general-header field to indicate what
2380   version of the MIME protocol was used to construct the message. Use
2381   of the MIME-Version header field indicates that the message is in
[115]2382   full compliance with the MIME protocol (as defined in <xref target="RFC2045"/>).
[8]2383   Proxies/gateways are responsible for ensuring full compliance (where
2384   possible) when exporting HTTP messages to strict MIME environments.
[357]2386<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="MIME-Version"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="MIME-Version-v"/>
[366]2387  <x:ref>MIME-Version</x:ref>   = "MIME-Version" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>MIME-Version-v</x:ref>
[357]2388  <x:ref>MIME-Version-v</x:ref> = 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref> "." 1*<x:ref>DIGIT</x:ref>
2391   MIME version "1.0" is the default for use in HTTP/1.1. However,
2392   HTTP/1.1 message parsing and semantics are defined by this document
2393   and not the MIME specification.
2397<section title="Conversion to Canonical Form" anchor="">
[97]2399   <xref target="RFC2045"/> requires that an Internet mail entity be converted to
[115]2400   canonical form prior to being transferred, as described in <xref target="RFC2049" x:fmt="of" x:sec="4"/>.
[97]2401   <xref target="canonicalization.and.text.defaults"/> of this document describes the forms
[8]2402   allowed for subtypes of the "text" media type when transmitted over
[97]2403   HTTP. <xref target="RFC2046"/> requires that content with a type of "text" represent
[8]2404   line breaks as CRLF and forbids the use of CR or LF outside of line
2405   break sequences. HTTP allows CRLF, bare CR, and bare LF to indicate a
2406   line break within text content when a message is transmitted over
2407   HTTP.
2410   Where it is possible, a proxy or gateway from HTTP to a strict MIME
2411   environment &SHOULD; translate all line breaks within the text media
2412   types described in <xref target="canonicalization.and.text.defaults"/> of this document to the RFC 2049
2413   canonical form of CRLF. Note, however, that this might be complicated
2414   by the presence of a Content-Encoding and by the fact that HTTP
2415   allows the use of some character sets which do not use octets 13 and
2416   10 to represent CR and LF, as is the case for some multi-byte
2417   character sets.
2420   Implementors should note that conversion will break any cryptographic
2421   checksums applied to the original content unless the original content
2422   is already in canonical form. Therefore, the canonical form is
2423   recommended for any content that uses such checksums in HTTP.
2427<section title="Introduction of Content-Encoding" anchor="introduction.of.content-encoding">
2429   RFC 2045 does not include any concept equivalent to HTTP/1.1's
2430   Content-Encoding header field. Since this acts as a modifier on the
2431   media type, proxies and gateways from HTTP to MIME-compliant
2432   protocols &MUST; either change the value of the Content-Type header
2433   field or decode the entity-body before forwarding the message. (Some
2434   experimental applications of Content-Type for Internet mail have used
2435   a media-type parameter of ";conversions=&lt;content-coding&gt;" to perform
2436   a function equivalent to Content-Encoding. However, this parameter is
2437   not part of RFC 2045).
2441<section title="No Content-Transfer-Encoding" anchor="no.content-transfer-encoding">
[85]2443   HTTP does not use the Content-Transfer-Encoding field of RFC
[8]2444   2045. Proxies and gateways from MIME-compliant protocols to HTTP &MUST;
[85]2445   remove any Content-Transfer-Encoding
[8]2446   prior to delivering the response message to an HTTP client.
2449   Proxies and gateways from HTTP to MIME-compliant protocols are
2450   responsible for ensuring that the message is in the correct format
2451   and encoding for safe transport on that protocol, where "safe
2452   transport" is defined by the limitations of the protocol being used.
2453   Such a proxy or gateway &SHOULD; label the data with an appropriate
2454   Content-Transfer-Encoding if doing so will improve the likelihood of
2455   safe transport over the destination protocol.
2459<section title="Introduction of Transfer-Encoding" anchor="introduction.of.transfer-encoding">
[29]2461   HTTP/1.1 introduces the Transfer-Encoding header field (&header-transfer-encoding;).
[8]2462   Proxies/gateways &MUST; remove any transfer-coding prior to
2463   forwarding a message via a MIME-compliant protocol.
2467<section title="MHTML and Line Length Limitations" anchor="mhtml.line.length">
[129]2469   HTTP implementations which share code with MHTML <xref target="RFC2557"/> implementations
[8]2470   need to be aware of MIME line length limitations. Since HTTP does not
2471   have this limitation, HTTP does not fold long lines. MHTML messages
2472   being transported by HTTP follow all conventions of MHTML, including
2473   line length limitations and folding, canonicalization, etc., since
2474   HTTP transports all message-bodies as payload (see <xref target="multipart.types"/>) and
2475   does not interpret the content or any MIME header lines that might be
2476   contained therein.
2481<section title="Additional Features" anchor="additional.features">
[97]2483   <xref target="RFC1945"/> and <xref target="RFC2068"/> document protocol elements used by some
[8]2484   existing HTTP implementations, but not consistently and correctly
2485   across most HTTP/1.1 applications. Implementors are advised to be
2486   aware of these features, but cannot rely upon their presence in, or
2487   interoperability with, other HTTP/1.1 applications. Some of these
2488   describe proposed experimental features, and some describe features
2489   that experimental deployment found lacking that are now addressed in
2490   the base HTTP/1.1 specification.
2493   A number of other headers, such as Content-Disposition and Title,
[97]2494   from SMTP and MIME are also often implemented (see <xref target="RFC2076"/>).
2497<section title="Content-Disposition" anchor="content-disposition">
2498<iref item="Headers" subitem="Content-Disposition" primary="true" x:for-anchor=""/>
2499<iref item="Content-Disposition header" primary="true" x:for-anchor=""/>
[229]2500  <x:anchor-alias value="content-disposition"/>
[357]2501  <x:anchor-alias value="content-disposition-v"/>
[229]2502  <x:anchor-alias value="disposition-type"/>
2503  <x:anchor-alias value="disposition-parm"/>
2504  <x:anchor-alias value="disp-extension-parm"/>
2505  <x:anchor-alias value="disp-extension-token"/>
2506  <x:anchor-alias value="filename-parm"/>
2508   The Content-Disposition response-header field has been proposed as a
2509   means for the origin server to suggest a default filename if the user
2510   requests that the content is saved to a file. This usage is derived
[269]2511   from the definition of Content-Disposition in <xref target="RFC2183"/>.
[357]2513<figure><artwork type="abnf2616"><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="content-disposition"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="content-disposition-v"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="disposition-type"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="disposition-parm"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="filename-parm"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="disp-extension-token"/><iref primary="true" item="Grammar" subitem="disp-extension-parm"/>
[366]2514  <x:ref>content-disposition</x:ref> = "Content-Disposition" ":" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref>
[357]2515                        <x:ref>content-disposition-v</x:ref>
[376]2516  <x:ref>content-disposition-v</x:ref> = <x:ref>disposition-type</x:ref>
2517                          *( <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> ";" <x:ref>OWS</x:ref> <x:ref>disposition-parm</x:ref> )
[334]2518  <x:ref>disposition-type</x:ref> = "attachment" / <x:ref>disp-extension-token</x:ref>
2519  <x:ref>disposition-parm</x:ref> = <x:ref>filename-parm</x:ref> / <x:ref>disp-extension-parm</x:ref>
[229]2520  <x:ref>filename-parm</x:ref> = "filename" "=" <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref>
2521  <x:ref>disp-extension-token</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref>
[334]2522  <x:ref>disp-extension-parm</x:ref> = <x:ref>token</x:ref> "=" ( <x:ref>token</x:ref> / <x:ref>quoted-string</x:ref> )
2525   An example is
2527<figure><artwork type="example">
[357]2528   Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="fname.ext"
2531   The receiving user agent &SHOULD-NOT;  respect any directory path
2532   information present in the filename-parm parameter, which is the only
2533   parameter believed to apply to HTTP implementations at this time. The
2534   filename &SHOULD; be treated as a terminal component only.
2537   If this header is used in a response with the application/octet-stream
2538   content-type, the implied suggestion is that the user agent
2539   should not display the response, but directly enter a `save response
2540   as...' dialog.
2543   See <xref target="content-disposition.issues"/> for Content-Disposition security issues.
[99]2548<section title="Compatibility with Previous Versions" anchor="compatibility">
[8]2549<section title="Changes from RFC 2068" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2068">
[138]2551   Transfer-coding and message lengths all interact in ways that
2552   required fixing exactly when chunked encoding is used (to allow for
2553   transfer encoding that may not be self delimiting); it was important
2554   to straighten out exactly how message lengths are computed.
2555   (<xref target="entity.length"/>, see also <xref target="Part1"/>,
2556   <xref target="Part5"/> and <xref target="Part6"/>).
[29]2559   Charset wildcarding is introduced to avoid explosion of character set
2560   names in accept headers. (<xref target="header.accept-charset"/>)
2563   Content-Base was deleted from the specification: it was not
2564   implemented widely, and there is no simple, safe way to introduce it
2565   without a robust extension mechanism. In addition, it is used in a
[129]2566   similar, but not identical fashion in MHTML <xref target="RFC2557"/>.
2569   A content-coding of "identity" was introduced, to solve problems
2570   discovered in caching. (<xref target="content.codings"/>)
2573   Quality Values of zero should indicate that "I don't want something"
2574   to allow clients to refuse a representation. (<xref target="quality.values"/>)
2577   The Alternates<iref item="Alternates header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Alternate" primary="true"/>, Content-Version<iref item="Content-Version header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Content-Version" primary="true"/>, Derived-From<iref item="Derived-From header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Derived-From" primary="true"/>, Link<iref item="Link header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Link" primary="true"/>, URI<iref item="URI header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="URI" primary="true"/>, Public<iref item="Public header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Public" primary="true"/> and
2578   Content-Base<iref item="Content-Base header" primary="true"/><iref item="Headers" subitem="Content-Base" primary="true"/> header fields were defined in previous versions of this
[268]2579   specification, but not commonly implemented. See <xref target="RFC2068" x:fmt="of" x:sec="19.6.2"/>.
2583<section title="Changes from RFC 2616" anchor="changes.from.rfc.2616">
2585  Clarify contexts that charset is used in.
2586  (<xref target="character.sets"/>)
2589  Remove reference to non-existant identity transfer-coding value tokens.
2590  (<xref target="no.content-transfer-encoding"/>)
[252]2596<section title="Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" anchor="change.log">
2598<section title="Since RFC2616">
2600  Extracted relevant partitions from <xref target="RFC2616"/>.
2604<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-00">
[116]2606  Closed issues:
2607  <list style="symbols">
2608    <t>
[324]2609      <eref target=""/>:
[116]2610      "Media Type Registrations"
2611      (<eref target=""/>)
2612    </t>
2613    <t>
[324]2614      <eref target=""/>:
[116]2615      "Clarification regarding quoting of charset values"
2616      (<eref target=""/>)
2617    </t>
2618    <t>
[324]2619      <eref target=""/>:
[116]2620      "Remove 'identity' token references"
2621      (<eref target=""/>)
2622    </t>
2623    <t>
[324]2624      <eref target=""/>:
[126]2625      "Accept-Encoding BNF"
2626    </t>
2627    <t>
[324]2628      <eref target=""/>:
[152]2629      "Normative and Informative references"
2630    </t>
2631    <t>
[324]2632      <eref target=""/>:
[116]2633      "RFC1700 references"
2634    </t>
[122]2635    <t>
[324]2636      <eref target=""/>:
[200]2637      "Updating to RFC4288"
2638    </t>
2639    <t>
[324]2640      <eref target=""/>:
[129]2641      "Informative references"
2642    </t>
2643    <t>
[324]2644      <eref target=""/>:
[123]2645      "ISO-8859-1 Reference"
2646    </t>
2647    <t>
[324]2648      <eref target=""/>:
[122]2649      "Encoding References Normative"
2650    </t>
[131]2651    <t>
[324]2652      <eref target=""/>:
[131]2653      "Normative up-to-date references"
2654    </t>
[116]2655  </list>
[170]2659<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-01">
[324]2661  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target=""/>):
[205]2662  <list style="symbols">
2663    <t>
2664      Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from other parts of the specification.
2665    </t>
2666  </list>
[252]2670<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-02" anchor="changes.since.02">
[232]2672  Closed issues:
2673  <list style="symbols">
2674    <t>
[324]2675      <eref target=""/>:
[251]2676      "Quoting Charsets"
2677    </t>
2678    <t>
[324]2679      <eref target=""/>:
[232]2680      "Classification for Allow header"
2681    </t>
[248]2682    <t>
[324]2683      <eref target=""/>:
[248]2684      "missing default for qvalue in description of Accept-Encoding"
2685    </t>
[232]2686  </list>
[324]2689  Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration (<eref target=""/>):
[253]2690  <list style="symbols">
2691    <t>
2692      Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers defined
2693      in this document.
2694    </t>
2695  </list>
[267]2699<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-03" anchor="changes.since.03">
[269]2701  Closed issues:
2702  <list style="symbols">
2703    <t>
[297]2704      <eref target=""/>:
2705      "Quoting Charsets"
2706    </t>
2707    <t>
[303]2708      <eref target=""/>:
2709      "language tag matching (Accept-Language) vs RFC4647"
2710    </t>
2711    <t>
[277]2712      <eref target=""/>:
[269]2713      "RFC 1806 has been replaced by RFC2183"
2714    </t>
2715  </list>
2718  Other changes:
2719  <list style="symbols">
2720    <t>
2721      <eref target=""/>:
2722      "Encoding References Normative" -- rephrase the annotation and reference
2723      <xref target="BCP97"/>.
2724    </t>
2725  </list>
[269]2727 </section>
[323]2729<section title="Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p3-payload-04" anchor="changes.since.04">
[327]2731  Closed issues:
2732  <list style="symbols">
2733    <t>
2734      <eref target=""/>:
2735      "RFC 2822 is updated by RFC 5322"
2736    </t>
2737  </list>
2740  Ongoing work on ABNF conversion (<eref target=""/>):
2741  <list style="symbols">
2742    <t>
2743      Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
2744    </t>
[357]2745    <t>
2746      Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
2747      whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
2748    </t>
2749    <t>
2750      Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out
2751      header value format definitions.
2752    </t>
[334]2753  </list>
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