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324</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
325      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
326      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">
327      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
328      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
329      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.2">
330      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
331      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.4">
332      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
333      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.6">
334      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.7" title="7 References">
335      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Compatibility with Previous Versions" href="#rfc.section.A">
336      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)" href="#rfc.section.B">
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338      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
339      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
340      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
341      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
342      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
343      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
344      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
345      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
346      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Lafon, Y.">
347      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Reschke, J. F.">
348      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01">
349      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2008-01-12">
350      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
351      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.">
352      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.">
353   </head>
354   <body>
355      <table class="header">
356         <tbody>
357            <tr>
358               <td class="left">Network Working Group</td>
359               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
360            </tr>
361            <tr>
362               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
363               <td class="right">Day Software</td>
364            </tr>
365            <tr>
366               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
367               </td>
368               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
369            </tr>
370            <tr>
371               <td class="left">Updates: <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">2617</a> (if approved)
372               </td>
373               <td class="right">One Laptop per Child</td>
374            </tr>
375            <tr>
376               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
377               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
378            </tr>
379            <tr>
380               <td class="left">Expires: July 15, 2008</td>
381               <td class="right">HP</td>
382            </tr>
383            <tr>
384               <td class="left"></td>
385               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
386            </tr>
387            <tr>
388               <td class="left"></td>
389               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
390            </tr>
391            <tr>
392               <td class="left"></td>
393               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
394            </tr>
395            <tr>
396               <td class="left"></td>
397               <td class="right">Adobe Systems</td>
398            </tr>
399            <tr>
400               <td class="left"></td>
401               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
402            </tr>
403            <tr>
404               <td class="left"></td>
405               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
406            </tr>
407            <tr>
408               <td class="left"></td>
409               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
410            </tr>
411            <tr>
412               <td class="left"></td>
413               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
414            </tr>
415            <tr>
416               <td class="left"></td>
417               <td class="right">Y. Lafon, Editor</td>
418            </tr>
419            <tr>
420               <td class="left"></td>
421               <td class="right">W3C</td>
422            </tr>
423            <tr>
424               <td class="left"></td>
425               <td class="right">J. Reschke, Editor</td>
426            </tr>
427            <tr>
428               <td class="left"></td>
429               <td class="right">greenbytes</td>
430            </tr>
431            <tr>
432               <td class="left"></td>
433               <td class="right">January 12, 2008</td>
434            </tr>
435         </tbody>
436      </table>
437      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01</span></p>
438      <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
439      <p>By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she
440         is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
441         6 of BCP 79.
442      </p>
443      <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note
444         that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
445      </p>
446      <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
447         documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
448         in progress”.
449      </p>
450      <p>The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt">http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt</a>.
451      </p>
452      <p>The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html">http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html</a>.
453      </p>
454      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on July 15, 2008.</p>
455      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1> 
456      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
457         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the
458         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part
459         7 defines HTTP Authentication.
460      </p> 
461      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1> 
462      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues
463         list is at &lt;<a href="http://www.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11">http://www.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://www.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://www.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
464      </p> 
465      <p>This draft incorporates those issue resolutions that were either collected in the original RFC2616 errata list (&lt;<a href="http://purl.org/NET/http-errata">http://purl.org/NET/http-errata</a>&gt;), or which were agreed upon on the mailing list between October 2006 and November 2007 (as published in "draft-lafon-rfc2616bis-03").
466      </p> 
467      <hr class="noprint">
468      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
469      <ul class="toc">
470         <li>1.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a><ul>
471               <li>1.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></li>
472            </ul>
473         </li>
474         <li>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
475               <li>2.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
476               <li>2.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
477            </ul>
478         </li>
479         <li>3.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
480               <li>3.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
481               <li>3.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
482               <li>3.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
483               <li>3.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
484            </ul>
485         </li>
486         <li>4.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></li>
487         <li>5.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
488               <li>5.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
489            </ul>
490         </li>
491         <li>6.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
492         <li>7.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a><ul>
493               <li>7.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.1">Normative References</a></li>
494               <li>7.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references.2">Informative References</a></li>
495            </ul>
496         </li>
497         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
498         <li>A.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a><ul>
499               <li>A.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></li>
500            </ul>
501         </li>
502         <li>B.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.B">Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)</a><ul>
503               <li>B.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.B.1">Since RFC2616</a></li>
504               <li>B.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.B.2">Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00</a></li>
505            </ul>
506         </li>
507         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
508         <li><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements</a></li>
509      </ul>
510      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a id="introduction" href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
511      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. Right now it includes the extracted relevant sections of <cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">RFC 2616</cite> with only minor changes. The intention is to move the general framework for HTTP authentication here, as currently specified
512         in <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.1"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>, and allow the individual authentication mechanisms to be defined elsewhere. This introduction will be rewritten when that
513         occurs.
514      </p>
515      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP provides several <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> challenge-response authentication mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to
516         provide authentication information. The general framework for access authentication, and the specification of "basic" and
517         "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.2"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. This specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and "credentials" from that specification.
518      </p>
519      <h2 id="rfc.section.1.1"><a href="#rfc.section.1.1">1.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="intro.requirements" href="#intro.requirements">Requirements</a></h2>
520      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.1">The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"
521         in this document are to be interpreted as described in <a href="#RFC2119" id="rfc.xref.RFC2119.1"><cite title="Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels">[RFC2119]</cite></a>.
522      </p>
523      <p id="rfc.section.1.1.p.2">An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level requirements for the protocols it implements. An implementation that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> or <em class="bcp14">REQUIRED</em> level and all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "unconditionally compliant"; one that satisfies all the <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> level requirements but not all the <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> level requirements for its protocols is said to be "conditionally compliant."
524      </p>
525      <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;Status Code Definitions
526      </h1>
527      <div id="rfc.iref."></div>
528      <div id="rfc.iref.s.1"></div>
529      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.401" href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></h2>
530      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">The request requires user authentication. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a WWW-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Authorization header field (<a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.1" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>). If the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization has been
531         refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has
532         already attempted authentication at least once, then the user <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be presented the entity that was given in the response, since that entity might include relevant diagnostic information. HTTP
533         access authentication is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.3"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>.
534      </p>
535      <div id="rfc.iref.1"></div>
536      <div id="rfc.iref.s.2"></div>
537      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="status.407" href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></h2>
538      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the client must first authenticate itself with the proxy. The
539         proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>). HTTP access authentication is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.4"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>.
540      </p>
541      <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.fields" href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
542      <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header fields related to authentication.</p>
543      <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
544      <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
545      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.authorization" href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></h2>
546      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with a server-- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 response--does
547         so by including an Authorization request-header field with the request. The Authorization field value consists of credentials
548         containing the authentication information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being requested.
549      </p>
550      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>  Authorization  = "Authorization" ":" credentials
551</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.5"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise,
552         such as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized clocks).
553      </p>
554      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">When a shared cache (see <a href="p6-cache.html#shared.and.non-shared.caches" title="Shared and Non-Shared Caches">Section 8</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) receives a request containing an Authorization field, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return the corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of the following specific exceptions holds:
555      </p>
556      <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5"> </p>
557      <ol>
558         <li>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
559            the new request. (This is the defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0", the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> always revalidate it before re-using it.
560         </li>
561         <li>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
562            the new request.
563         </li>
564         <li>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be returned in reply to any subsequent request.
565         </li>
566      </ol>
567      <div id="rfc.iref.p.1"></div>
568      <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
569      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.proxy-authenticate" href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></h2>
570      <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The Proxy-Authenticate response-header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included as part of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response. The field value consists of a challenge that indicates
571         the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy for this Request-URI.
572      </p>
573      <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span>  Proxy-Authenticate  = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
574</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.6"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to the current connection and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be passed on to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own credentials by requesting
575         them from the downstream client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate
576         header field.
577      </p>
578      <div id="rfc.iref.p.2"></div>
579      <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
580      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.proxy-authorization" href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></h2>
581      <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">The Proxy-Authorization request-header field allows the client to identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
582         authentication. The Proxy-Authorization field value consists of credentials containing the authentication information of the
583         user agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
584      </p>
585      <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>  Proxy-Authorization     = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" credentials
586</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.7"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication
587         using the Proxy-Authenticate field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed
588         by the first outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
589         authenticate a given request.
590      </p>
591      <div id="rfc.iref.w.1"></div>
592      <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
593      <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a id="header.www-authenticate" href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></h2>
594      <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">The WWW-Authenticate response-header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages. The field value consists of at least one challenge that indicates the
595         authentication scheme(s) and parameters applicable to the Request-URI.
596      </p>
597      <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>  WWW-Authenticate  = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
598</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.8"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one
599         challenge, or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the contents of a challenge itself can contain a
600         comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
601      </p>
602      <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a id="IANA.considerations" href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
603      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">TBD.</p>
604      <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a id="security.considerations" href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
605      <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
606         as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
607         make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
608      </p>
609      <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients" href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></h2>
610      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide
611         a method for a server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is a significant defect that requires further
612         extensions to HTTP. Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the application's security model include
613         but are not limited to:
614      </p>
615      <ul>
616         <li>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt
617            the user for credentials.
618         </li>
619         <li>Applications which include a session termination indication (such as a `logout' or `commit' button on a page) after which
620            the server side of the application `knows' that there is no further reason for the client to retain the credentials.
621         </li>
622      </ul>
623      <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.2">This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the
624         use of password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other methods which mitigate the security problems inherent
625         in this problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism
626         for discarding cached credentials under user control.
627      </p>
628      <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a id="ack" href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
629      <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">TBD.</p>
630      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a id="rfc.section.7" href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a> References
631      </h1>
632      <h2 id="rfc.references.1"><a href="#rfc.section.7.1" id="rfc.section.7.1">7.1</a> Normative References
633      </h2>
634      <table>     
635         <tr>
636            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
637            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@laptop.org" title="One Laptop per Child">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Lafon, Y., Ed.</a>, and <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de" title="greenbytes GmbH">J. Reschke, Ed.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-01">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-01 (work in progress), January&nbsp;2008.
638            </td>
639         </tr>
640         <tr>
641            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</b></td>
642            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:sob@harvard.edu" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119">Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a>”, BCP&nbsp;14, RFC&nbsp;2119, March&nbsp;1997.
643            </td>
644         </tr>
645         <tr>
646            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2617">[RFC2617]</b></td>
647            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:john@math.nwu.edu" title="Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics">Franks, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:pbaker@verisign.com" title="Verisign Inc.">Hallam-Baker, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:jeff@AbiSource.com" title="AbiSource, Inc.">Hostetler, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:lawrence@agranat.com" title="Agranat Systems, Inc.">Lawrence, S.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, Luotonen, A., and <a href="mailto:stewart@OpenMarket.com" title="Open Market, Inc.">L. Stewart</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2617, June&nbsp;1999.
648            </td>
649         </tr>
650      </table>
651      <h2 id="rfc.references.2"><a href="#rfc.section.7.2" id="rfc.section.7.2">7.2</a> Informative References
652      </h2>
653      <table> 
654         <tr>
655            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
656            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
657            </td>
658         </tr>
659      </table>
660      <div class="avoidbreak">
661         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
662         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Roy T. Fielding</span>
663               (editor)
664               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Fielding</span><span class="given-name">Roy T.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Day Software</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Newport Beach</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">92660</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline tel">Phone: <a href="tel:+1-949-706-5300"><span class="value">+1-949-706-5300</span></a></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+1-949-706-5305"><span class="value">+1-949-706-5305</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com"><span class="email">fielding@gbiv.com</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/" class="url">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></span></address>
665         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jim Gettys</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Gettys</span><span class="given-name">Jim</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">One Laptop per Child</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">21 Oak Knoll Road</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Carlisle</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">01741</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:jg@laptop.org"><span class="email">jg@laptop.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.laptop.org/" class="url">http://www.laptop.org/</a></span></address>
666         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Jeffrey C. Mogul</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Mogul</span><span class="given-name">Jeffrey C.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Hewlett-Packard Company</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group</span><span class="street-address vcardline">1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Palo Alto</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">94304</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org"><span class="email">JeffMogul@acm.org</span></a></span></address>
667         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Frystyk</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Microsoft Corporation</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">1 Microsoft Way</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Redmond</span>, <span class="region">WA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">98052</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com"><span class="email">henrikn@microsoft.com</span></a></span></address>
668         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Larry Masinter</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Masinter</span><span class="given-name">Larry</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Adobe Systems, Incorporated</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">345 Park Ave</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">San Jose</span>, <span class="region">CA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">95110</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org"><span class="email">LMM@acm.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://larry.masinter.net/" class="url">http://larry.masinter.net/</a></span></address>
669         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Paul J. Leach</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Leach</span><span class="given-name">Paul J.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Microsoft Corporation</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">1 Microsoft Way</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Redmond</span>, <span class="region">WA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">98052</span></span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com"><span class="email">paulle@microsoft.com</span></a></span></address>
670         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Tim Berners-Lee</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Berners-Lee</span><span class="given-name">Tim</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory</span><span class="street-address vcardline">The Stata Center, Building 32</span><span class="street-address vcardline">32 Vassar Street</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Cambridge</span>, <span class="region">MA</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">02139</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">USA</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org"><span class="email">timbl@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/" class="url">http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</a></span></address>
671         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Yves Lafon</span>
672               (editor)
673               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Lafon</span><span class="given-name">Yves</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">World Wide Web Consortium</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">W3C / ERCIM</span><span class="street-address vcardline">2004, rte des Lucioles</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Sophia-Antipolis</span>, <span class="region">AM</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">06902</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">France</span></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:ylafon@w3.org"><span class="email">ylafon@w3.org</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/" class="url">http://www.raubacapeu.net/people/yves/</a></span></address>
674         <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Julian F. Reschke</span>
675               (editor)
676               <span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Reschke</span><span class="given-name">Julian F.</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">greenbytes GmbH</span><span class="adr"><span class="street-address vcardline">Hafenweg 16</span><span class="vcardline"><span class="locality">Muenster</span>, <span class="region">NW</span>&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">48155</span></span><span class="country-name vcardline">Germany</span></span><span class="vcardline tel">Phone: <a href="tel:+492512807760"><span class="value">+49 251 2807760</span></a></span><span class="vcardline tel"><span class="type">Fax</span>: <a href="fax:+492512807761"><span class="value">+49 251 2807761</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href="mailto:julian.reschke@greenbytes.de"><span class="email">julian.reschke@greenbytes.de</span></a></span><span class="vcardline">URI: <a href="http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/" class="url">http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/</a></span></address>
677      </div>
678      <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;<a id="compatibility" href="#compatibility">Compatibility with Previous Versions</a></h1>
679      <h2 id="rfc.section.A.1"><a href="#rfc.section.A.1">A.1</a>&nbsp;<a id="changes.from.rfc.2616" href="#changes.from.rfc.2616">Changes from RFC 2616</a></h2>
680      <h1 id="rfc.section.B"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
681      </h1>
682      <h2 id="rfc.section.B.1"><a href="#rfc.section.B.1">B.1</a>&nbsp;Since RFC2616
683      </h2>
684      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.1">Extracted relevant partitions from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a>.
685      </p>
686      <h2 id="rfc.section.B.2"><a href="#rfc.section.B.2">B.2</a>&nbsp;Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00
687      </h2>
688      <p id="rfc.section.B.2.p.1">Closed issues: </p>
689      <ul>
690         <li> &lt;<a href="http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35">http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35</a>&gt;: "Normative and Informative references"
691         </li>
692      </ul>
693      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
694      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> <a href="#rfc.index.W">W</a> 
695      </p>
696      <div class="print2col">
697         <ul class="ind">
698            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
699                  <li>401 Unauthorized (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref."><b>2.1</b></a></li>
700                  <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.1"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
701               </ul>
702            </li>
703            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
704                  <li>Authorization header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
705               </ul>
706            </li>
707            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
708                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
709                     <ul>
710                        <li><tt>Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
711                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
712                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
713                        <li><tt>WWW-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
714                     </ul>
715                  </li>
716               </ul>
717            </li>
718            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
719                  <li>Headers&nbsp;&nbsp;
720                     <ul>
721                        <li>Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
722                        <li>Proxy-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
723                        <li>Proxy-Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
724                        <li>WWW-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
725                     </ul>
726                  </li>
727               </ul>
728            </li>
729            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
730                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>7.1</b></a><ul>
731                        <li><em>Section 8</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a></li>
732                     </ul>
733                  </li>
734                  <li>Proxy-Authenticate header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.1"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
735                  <li>Proxy-Authorization header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.2"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
736               </ul>
737            </li>
738            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
739                  <li><em>RFC2119</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2119.1">1.1</a>, <a href="#RFC2119"><b>7.1</b></a></li>
740                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">1</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>7.2</b></a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">B.1</a></li>
741                  <li><em>RFC2617</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.5">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.6">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.7">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.8">3.4</a>, <a href="#RFC2617"><b>7.1</b></a></li>
742               </ul>
743            </li>
744            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
745                  <li>Status Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;
746                     <ul>
747                        <li>401 Unauthorized&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
748                        <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
749                     </ul>
750                  </li>
751               </ul>
752            </li>
753            <li><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul>
754                  <li>WWW-Authenticate header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.w.1"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
755               </ul>
756            </li>
757         </ul>
758      </div>
759      <h1><a id="rfc.copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">Full Copyright Statement</a></h1>
760      <p>Copyright © The IETF Trust (2008).</p>
761      <p>This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the
762         authors retain all their rights.
763      </p>
764      <p>This document and the information contained herein are provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION
765         HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE
766         DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN
767         WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
768      </p>
769      <h1><a id="rfc.ipr" href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property</a></h1>
770      <p>The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might
771         be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any
772         license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to
773         identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and
774         BCP 79.
775      </p>
776      <p>Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result
777         of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users
778         of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ipr">http://www.ietf.org/ipr</a>.
779      </p>
780      <p>The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
781         rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF
782         at <a href="mailto:ietf-ipr@ietf.org">ietf-ipr@ietf.org</a>.
783      </p>
784   </body>
785</html>
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