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297       content: "Fielding, et al.";
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300       content: "Expires June 22, 2008";
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318</style><link rel="Contents" href="#rfc.toc">
319      <link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
320      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">
321      <link rel="Index" href="#rfc.index">
322      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
323      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Status Code Definitions" href="#rfc.section.2">
324      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Header Field Definitions" href="#rfc.section.3">
325      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 IANA Considerations" href="#rfc.section.4">
326      <link rel="Chapter" title="5 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.5">
327      <link rel="Chapter" title="6 Acknowledgments" href="#rfc.section.6">
328      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.7" title="7 References">
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330      <link rel="schema.dct" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
331      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Fielding, R.">
332      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Gettys, J.">
333      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Mogul, J.">
334      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Frystyk, H.">
335      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Masinter, L.">
336      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Leach, P.">
337      <meta name="dct.creator" content="Berners-Lee, T.">
338      <meta name="dct.identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00">
339      <meta name="dct.issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2007-12-20">
340      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2068">
341      <meta name="dct.replaces" content="urn:ietf:rfc:2616">
342      <meta name="dct.abstract" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.">
343      <meta name="description" content="The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as &#34;HTTP/1.1&#34; and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines HTTP Authentication.">
344   </head>
345   <body>
346      <table class="header">
347         <tbody>
348            <tr>
349               <td class="left">Network Working Group</td>
350               <td class="right">R. Fielding, Editor</td>
351            </tr>
352            <tr>
353               <td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
354               <td class="right">Day Software</td>
355            </tr>
356            <tr>
357               <td class="left">Obsoletes: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2068">2068</a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">2616</a> (if approved)
358               </td>
359               <td class="right">J. Gettys</td>
360            </tr>
361            <tr>
362               <td class="left">Updates: <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">2617</a> (if approved)
363               </td>
364               <td class="right">One Laptop per Child</td>
365            </tr>
366            <tr>
367               <td class="left">Intended status: Standards Track</td>
368               <td class="right">J. Mogul</td>
369            </tr>
370            <tr>
371               <td class="left">Expires: June 22, 2008</td>
372               <td class="right">HP</td>
373            </tr>
374            <tr>
375               <td class="left"></td>
376               <td class="right">H. Frystyk</td>
377            </tr>
378            <tr>
379               <td class="left"></td>
380               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
381            </tr>
382            <tr>
383               <td class="left"></td>
384               <td class="right">L. Masinter</td>
385            </tr>
386            <tr>
387               <td class="left"></td>
388               <td class="right">Adobe Systems</td>
389            </tr>
390            <tr>
391               <td class="left"></td>
392               <td class="right">P. Leach</td>
393            </tr>
394            <tr>
395               <td class="left"></td>
396               <td class="right">Microsoft</td>
397            </tr>
398            <tr>
399               <td class="left"></td>
400               <td class="right">T. Berners-Lee</td>
401            </tr>
402            <tr>
403               <td class="left"></td>
404               <td class="right">W3C/MIT</td>
405            </tr>
406            <tr>
407               <td class="left"></td>
408               <td class="right">December 20, 2007</td>
409            </tr>
410         </tbody>
411      </table>
412      <p class="title">HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00</span></p>
413      <div id="rfc.status">
414         <h1><a href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
415         <p>By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she
416            is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
417            6 of BCP 79.
418         </p>
419         <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note
420            that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
421         </p>
422         <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
423            documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
424            in progress”.
425         </p>
426         <p>The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt">http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt</a>.
427         </p>
428         <p>The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html">http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html</a>.
429         </p>
430         <p>This Internet-Draft will expire on June 22, 2008.</p>
431      </div>
432      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
433      <p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
434         systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the
435         seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part
436         7 defines HTTP Authentication.
437      </p>
438      <h1 id="rfc.note.1"><a href="#rfc.note.1">Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)</a></h1>
439      <p>This version of the HTTP specification contains only minimal editorial changes from <a href="#RFC2616" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.1"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a> (abstract, introductory paragraph, and authors' addresses). All other changes are due to partitioning the original into seven
440         mostly independent parts. The intent is for readers of future drafts to able to use draft 00 as the basis for comparison when
441         the WG makes later changes to the specification text. This draft will shortly be followed by draft 01 (containing the first
442         round of changes that have already been agreed to on the mailing list). There is no point in reviewing this draft other than
443         to verify that the partitioning has been done correctly. Roy T. Fielding, Yves Lafon, and Julian Reschke will be the editors
444         after draft 00 is submitted.
445      </p>
446      <p>Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues
447         list is at &lt;<a href="http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11">http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/11</a>&gt; and related documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at &lt;<a href="http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/">http://www3.tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/</a>&gt;.
448      </p>
449      <hr class="noprint">
450      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.toc"><a href="#rfc.toc">Table of Contents</a></h1>
451      <ul class="toc">
452         <li><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
453         <li><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.section.2">Status Code Definitions</a><ul>
454               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></li>
455               <li><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></li>
456            </ul>
457         </li>
458         <li><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a><ul>
459               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></li>
460               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></li>
461               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></li>
462               <li><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></li>
463            </ul>
464         </li>
465         <li><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></li>
466         <li><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a><ul>
467               <li><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></li>
468            </ul>
469         </li>
470         <li><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></li>
471         <li><a href="#rfc.section.7">7.</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.references">References</a></li>
472         <li><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></li>
473         <li><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></li>
474         <li><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements</a></li>
475      </ul>
476      <div id="introduction">
477         <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
478         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">This document will define aspects of HTTP related to access control and authentication. Right now it only includes the extracted
479            relevant sections of <a href="#RFC2616">RFC 2616</a> <cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1" id="rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">[RFC2616]</cite> with only minor edits.
480         </p>
481         <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">HTTP provides several <em class="bcp14">OPTIONAL</em> challenge-response authentication mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a client to
482            provide authentication information. The general framework for access authentication, and the specification of "basic" and
483            "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.1"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. This specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and "credentials" from that specification.
484         </p>
485      </div>
486      <div>
487         <h1 id="rfc.section.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;Status Code Definitions
488         </h1>
489         <div id="status.401">
490            <div id="rfc.iref.4.1"></div>
491            <div id="rfc.iref.s.1"></div>
492            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.401">401 Unauthorized</a></h2>
493            <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">The request requires user authentication. The response <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> include a WWW-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.www-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1" title="WWW-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;3.4</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Authorization header field (<a href="#header.authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.authorization.1" title="Authorization">Section&nbsp;3.1</a>). If the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization has been
494               refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has
495               already attempted authentication at least once, then the user <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be presented the entity that was given in the response, since that entity might include relevant diagnostic information. HTTP
496               access authentication is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.2"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>.
497            </p>
498         </div>
499         <div id="status.407">
500            <div id="rfc.iref.4.2"></div>
501            <div id="rfc.iref.s.2"></div>
502            <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#status.407">407 Proxy Authentication Required</a></h2>
503            <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the client must first authenticate itself with the proxy. The
504               proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1" title="Proxy-Authenticate">Section&nbsp;3.2</a>) containing a challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource. The client <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization header field (<a href="#header.proxy-authorization" id="rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1" title="Proxy-Authorization">Section&nbsp;3.3</a>). HTTP access authentication is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.3"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>.
505            </p>
506         </div>
507      </div>
508      <div id="header.fields">
509         <h1 id="rfc.section.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.fields">Header Field Definitions</a></h1>
510         <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">This section defines the syntax and semantics of all standard HTTP/1.1 header fields. For entity-header fields, both sender
511            and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity.
512         </p>
513         <div id="header.authorization">
514            <div id="rfc.iref.a.1"></div>
515            <div id="rfc.iref.h.1"></div>
516            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.1"><a href="#rfc.section.3.1">3.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.authorization">Authorization</a></h2>
517            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.1">A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with a server-- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 response--does
518               so by including an Authorization request-header field with the request. The Authorization field value consists of credentials
519               containing the authentication information of the user agent for the realm of the resource being requested.
520            </p>
521            <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.1"></span>       Authorization  = "Authorization" ":" credentials
522</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.3">HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.4"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials <em class="bcp14">SHOULD</em> be valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that the authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise,
523               such as credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using synchronized clocks).
524            </p>
525            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.4">When a shared cache (see <a href="p6-cache.html#shared.and.non-shared.caches" title="Shared and Non-Shared Caches">Section 2.7</a> of <a href="#Part6" id="rfc.xref.Part6.1"><cite title="HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching">[Part6]</cite></a>) receives a request containing an Authorization field, it <em class="bcp14">MUST NOT</em> return the corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of the following specific exceptions holds:
526            </p>
527            <p id="rfc.section.3.1.p.5"></p>
528            <ol>
529               <li>If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy cache <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
530                  the new request. (This is the defined behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0", the proxy <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> always revalidate it before re-using it.
531               </li>
532               <li>If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control directive, the cache <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> use that response in replying to a subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> first revalidate it with the origin server, using the request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server to authenticate
533                  the new request.
534               </li>
535               <li>If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> be returned in reply to any subsequent request.
536               </li>
537            </ol>
538         </div>
539         <div id="header.proxy-authenticate">
540            <div id="rfc.iref.p.1"></div>
541            <div id="rfc.iref.h.2"></div>
542            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.2"><a href="#rfc.section.3.2">3.2</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authenticate">Proxy-Authenticate</a></h2>
543            <p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.1">The Proxy-Authenticate response-header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included as part of a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) response. The field value consists of a challenge that indicates
544               the authentication scheme and parameters applicable to the proxy for this Request-URI.
545            </p>
546            <div id="rfc.figure.u.2"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.2"></span>    Proxy-Authenticate  = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
547</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.2.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.5"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies only to the current connection and <em class="bcp14">SHOULD NOT</em> be passed on to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to obtain its own credentials by requesting
548               them from the downstream client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate
549               header field.
550            </p>
551         </div>
552         <div id="header.proxy-authorization">
553            <div id="rfc.iref.p.2"></div>
554            <div id="rfc.iref.h.3"></div>
555            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.3"><a href="#rfc.section.3.3">3.3</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.proxy-authorization">Proxy-Authorization</a></h2>
556            <p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.1">The Proxy-Authorization request-header field allows the client to identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
557               authentication. The Proxy-Authorization field value consists of credentials containing the authentication information of the
558               user agent for the proxy and/or realm of the resource being requested.
559            </p>
560            <div id="rfc.figure.u.3"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.3"></span>    Proxy-Authorization     = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" credentials
561</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.3.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.6"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication
562               using the Proxy-Authenticate field. When multiple proxies are used in a chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed
563               by the first outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy <em class="bcp14">MAY</em> relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
564               authenticate a given request.
565            </p>
566         </div>
567         <div id="header.www-authenticate">
568            <div id="rfc.iref.w.1"></div>
569            <div id="rfc.iref.h.4"></div>
570            <h2 id="rfc.section.3.4"><a href="#rfc.section.3.4">3.4</a>&nbsp;<a href="#header.www-authenticate">WWW-Authenticate</a></h2>
571            <p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.1">The WWW-Authenticate response-header field <em class="bcp14">MUST</em> be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages. The field value consists of at least one challenge that indicates the
572               authentication scheme(s) and parameters applicable to the Request-URI.
573            </p>
574            <div id="rfc.figure.u.4"></div><pre class="inline"><span id="rfc.iref.g.4"></span>    WWW-Authenticate  = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" 1#challenge
575</pre><p id="rfc.section.3.4.p.3">The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617" id="rfc.xref.RFC2617.7"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a>. User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one
576               challenge, or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the contents of a challenge itself can contain a
577               comma-separated list of authentication parameters.
578            </p>
579         </div>
580      </div>
581      <div id="IANA.considerations">
582         <h1 id="rfc.section.4"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#IANA.considerations">IANA Considerations</a></h1>
583         <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">TBD.</p>
584      </div>
585      <div id="security.considerations">
586         <h1 id="rfc.section.5"><a href="#rfc.section.5">5.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#security.considerations">Security Considerations</a></h1>
587         <p id="rfc.section.5.p.1">This section is meant to inform application developers, information providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1
588            as described by this document. The discussion does not include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does
589            make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
590         </p>
591         <div id="auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">
592            <h2 id="rfc.section.5.1"><a href="#rfc.section.5.1">5.1</a>&nbsp;<a href="#auth.credentials.and.idle.clients">Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients</a></h2>
593            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.1">Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1. does not provide
594               a method for a server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This is a significant defect that requires further
595               extensions to HTTP. Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the application's security model include
596               but are not limited to:
597            </p>
598            <ul>
599               <li>Clients which have been idle for an extended period following which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt
600                  the user for credentials.
601               </li>
602               <li>Applications which include a session termination indication (such as a `logout' or `commit' button on a page) after which
603                  the server side of the application `knows' that there is no further reason for the client to retain the credentials.
604               </li>
605            </ul>
606            <p id="rfc.section.5.1.p.2">This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the
607               use of password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other methods which mitigate the security problems inherent
608               in this problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism
609               for discarding cached credentials under user control.
610            </p>
611         </div>
612      </div>
613      <div id="ack">
614         <h1 id="rfc.section.6"><a href="#rfc.section.6">6.</a>&nbsp;<a href="#ack">Acknowledgments</a></h1>
615         <p id="rfc.section.6.p.1">Based on an XML translation of RFC 2616 by Julian Reschke.</p>
616      </div>
617      <h1 id="rfc.references"><a href="#rfc.section.7" id="rfc.section.7">7.</a> References
618      </h1>
619      <table>
620         <tr>
621            <td class="reference"><b id="Part6">[Part6]</b></td>
622            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com" title="Day Software">Fielding, R., Ed.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@laptop.org" title="One Laptop per Child">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org" title="Hewlett-Packard Company">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org" title="Adobe Systems, Incorporated">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="World Wide Web Consortium">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-00">HTTP/1.1, part 6: Caching</a>”, Internet-Draft&nbsp;draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-00 (work in progress), December&nbsp;2007.
623            </td>
624         </tr>
625         <tr>
626            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
627            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:fielding@ics.uci.edu" title="University of California, Irvine">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="mailto:jg@w3.org" title="W3C">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:mogul@wrl.dec.com" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:frystyk@w3.org" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="mailto:masinter@parc.xerox.com" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org" title="W3C">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
628            </td>
629         </tr>
630         <tr>
631            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2617">[RFC2617]</b></td>
632            <td class="top"><a href="mailto:john@math.nwu.edu" title="Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics">Franks, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:pbaker@verisign.com" title="Verisign Inc.">Hallam-Baker, P.</a>, <a href="mailto:jeff@AbiSource.com" title="AbiSource, Inc.">Hostetler, J.</a>, <a href="mailto:lawrence@agranat.com" title="Agranat Systems, Inc.">Lawrence, S.</a>, <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, Luotonen, A., and <a href="mailto:stewart@OpenMarket.com" title="Open Market, Inc.">L. Stewart</a>, “<a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2617, June&nbsp;1999.
633            </td>
634         </tr>
635      </table>
636      <h1 id="rfc.index"><a href="#rfc.index">Index</a></h1>
637      <p class="noprint"><a href="#rfc.index.4">4</a> <a href="#rfc.index.A">A</a> <a href="#rfc.index.G">G</a> <a href="#rfc.index.H">H</a> <a href="#rfc.index.P">P</a> <a href="#rfc.index.R">R</a> <a href="#rfc.index.S">S</a> <a href="#rfc.index.W">W</a>
638      </p>
639      <div class="print2col">
640         <ul class="ind">
641            <li><a id="rfc.index.4" href="#rfc.index.4"><b>4</b></a><ul>
642                  <li>401 Unauthorized (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
643                  <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code)&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.4.2"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
644               </ul>
645            </li>
646            <li><a id="rfc.index.A" href="#rfc.index.A"><b>A</b></a><ul>
647                  <li>Authorization header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.a.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
648               </ul>
649            </li>
650            <li><a id="rfc.index.G" href="#rfc.index.G"><b>G</b></a><ul>
651                  <li><tt>Grammar</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;
652                     <ul>
653                        <li><tt>Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
654                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.2"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
655                        <li><tt>Proxy-Authorization</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.3"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
656                        <li><tt>WWW-Authenticate</tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.g.4"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
657                     </ul>
658                  </li>
659               </ul>
660            </li>
661            <li><a id="rfc.index.H" href="#rfc.index.H"><b>H</b></a><ul>
662                  <li>Headers&nbsp;&nbsp;
663                     <ul>
664                        <li>Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.authorization.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.1"><b>3.1</b></a></li>
665                        <li>Proxy-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.2"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
666                        <li>Proxy-Authorization&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.3"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
667                        <li>WWW-Authenticate&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.h.4"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
668                     </ul>
669                  </li>
670               </ul>
671            </li>
672            <li><a id="rfc.index.P" href="#rfc.index.P"><b>P</b></a><ul>
673                  <li><em>Part6</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a>, <a href="#Part6"><b>7</b></a><ul>
674                        <li><em>Section 2.7</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.Part6.1">3.1</a></li>
675                     </ul>
676                  </li>
677                  <li>Proxy-Authenticate header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authenticate.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.1"><b>3.2</b></a></li>
678                  <li>Proxy-Authorization header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.proxy-authorization.1">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.p.2"><b>3.3</b></a></li>
679               </ul>
680            </li>
681            <li><a id="rfc.index.R" href="#rfc.index.R"><b>R</b></a><ul>
682                  <li><em>RFC2616</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.1">§</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2616.2">1</a>, <a href="#RFC2616"><b>7</b></a></li>
683                  <li><em>RFC2617</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.1">1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.2">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.3">2.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.4">3.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.5">3.2</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.6">3.3</a>, <a href="#rfc.xref.RFC2617.7">3.4</a>, <a href="#RFC2617"><b>7</b></a></li>
684               </ul>
685            </li>
686            <li><a id="rfc.index.S" href="#rfc.index.S"><b>S</b></a><ul>
687                  <li>Status Codes&nbsp;&nbsp;
688                     <ul>
689                        <li>401 Unauthorized&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.1"><b>2.1</b></a></li>
690                        <li>407 Proxy Authentication Required&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.iref.s.2"><b>2.2</b></a></li>
691                     </ul>
692                  </li>
693               </ul>
694            </li>
695            <li><a id="rfc.index.W" href="#rfc.index.W"><b>W</b></a><ul>
696                  <li>WWW-Authenticate header&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="#rfc.xref.header.www-authenticate.1">2.1</a>, <a href="#rfc.iref.w.1"><b>3.4</b></a></li>
697               </ul>
698            </li>
699         </ul>
700      </div>
701      <div class="avoidbreak">
702         <h1 id="rfc.authors"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
703         <p><b>Roy T. Fielding</b>
704            (editor)
705            <br>Day Software<br>23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280<br>Newport Beach, CA&nbsp;92660<br>USA<br>Phone: <a href="tel:+1-949-706-5300">+1-949-706-5300</a><br>Fax: <a href="fax:+1-949-706-5305">+1-949-706-5305</a><br>EMail: <a href="mailto:fielding@gbiv.com">fielding@gbiv.com</a><br>URI: <a href="http://roy.gbiv.com/">http://roy.gbiv.com/</a></p>
706         <p><b>Jim Gettys</b><br>One Laptop per Child<br>21 Oak Knoll Road<br>Carlisle, MA&nbsp;01741<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:jg@laptop.org">jg@laptop.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.laptop.org/">http://www.laptop.org/</a></p>
707         <p><b>Jeffrey C. Mogul</b><br>Hewlett-Packard Company<br>HP Labs, Large Scale Systems Group<br>1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1177<br>Palo Alto, CA&nbsp;94304<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:JeffMogul@acm.org">JeffMogul@acm.org</a></p>
708         <p><b>Henrik Frystyk Nielsen</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:henrikn@microsoft.com">henrikn@microsoft.com</a></p>
709         <p><b>Larry Masinter</b><br>Adobe Systems, Incorporated<br>345 Park Ave<br>San Jose, CA&nbsp;95110<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:LMM@acm.org">LMM@acm.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://larry.masinter.net/">http://larry.masinter.net/</a></p>
710         <p><b>Paul J. Leach</b><br>Microsoft Corporation<br>1 Microsoft Way<br>Redmond, WA&nbsp;98052<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:paulle@microsoft.com">paulle@microsoft.com</a></p>
711         <p><b>Tim Berners-Lee</b><br>World Wide Web Consortium<br>MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory<br>The Stata Center, Building 32<br>32 Vassar Street<br>Cambridge, MA&nbsp;02139<br>USA<br>EMail: <a href="mailto:timbl@w3.org">timbl@w3.org</a><br>URI: <a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/">http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/</a></p>
712      </div>
713      <div id="rfc.copyright">
714         <h1><a href="#rfc.copyright">Full Copyright Statement</a></h1>
715         <p>Copyright © The IETF Trust (2007).</p>
716         <p>This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the
717            authors retain all their rights.
718         </p>
719         <p>This document and the information contained herein are provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION
720            HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE
721            DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN
722            WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
723         </p>
724      </div>
725      <div id="rfc.ipr">
726         <h1><a href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property</a></h1>
727         <p>The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might
728            be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any
729            license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to
730            identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and
731            BCP 79.
732         </p>
733         <p>Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result
734            of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users
735            of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/ipr">http://www.ietf.org/ipr</a>.
736         </p>
737         <p>The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
738            rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF
739            at <a href="mailto:ietf-ipr@ietf.org">ietf-ipr@ietf.org</a>.
740         </p>
741      </div>
742   </body>
743</html>
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