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299       content: "January 2008";
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302       content: "Security Requirements for HTTP";
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305       content: "Hoffman & Melnikov";
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326</style><link rel="Author" href="#rfc.authors">
327      <link rel="Copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">
328      <link rel="Chapter" title="1 Introduction" href="#rfc.section.1">
329      <link rel="Chapter" title="2 Existing HTTP Security Mechanisms" href="#rfc.section.2">
330      <link rel="Chapter" title="3 Revisions To HTTP" href="#rfc.section.3">
331      <link rel="Chapter" title="4 Security Considerations" href="#rfc.section.4">
332      <link rel="Chapter" href="#rfc.section.5" title="5 Normative References">
333      <link rel="Appendix" title="A Acknowledgements" href="#rfc.section.A">
334      <link rel="Appendix" title="B Document History" href="#rfc.section.B">
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336      <link rel="schema.DC" href="">
337      <meta name="DC.Creator" content="Hoffman, P.">
338      <meta name="DC.Creator" content="Melnikov, A.">
339      <meta name="DC.Identifier" content="urn:ietf:id:draft-ietf-httpbis-security-properties-latest">
340      <meta name="DC.Date.Issued" scheme="ISO8601" content="2008-01">
341      <meta name="DC.Description.Abstract" content="Recent IESG practice dictates that IETF protocols must specify mandatory-to-implement security mechanisms, so that all conformant implementations share a common baseline. This document examines all widely deployed HTTP security technologies, and analyzes the trade-offs of each.">
342   </head>
343   <body>
344      <table summary="header information" class="header" border="0" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1">
345         <tr>
346            <td class="header left">Network Working Group</td>
347            <td class="header right">P. Hoffman</td>
348         </tr>
349         <tr>
350            <td class="header left">Internet Draft</td>
351            <td class="header right">VPN Consortium</td>
352         </tr>
353         <tr>
354            <td class="header left">
355               &lt;draft-ietf-httpbis-security-properties-latest&gt;
357            </td>
358            <td class="header right">A. Melnikov</td>
359         </tr>
360         <tr>
361            <td class="header left">Intended status: Informational</td>
362            <td class="header right">Isode Ltd.</td>
363         </tr>
364         <tr>
365            <td class="header left">Expires: July 2008</td>
366            <td class="header right">January 2008</td>
367         </tr>
368      </table>
369      <p class="title">Security Requirements for HTTP<br><span class="filename">draft-ietf-httpbis-security-properties-latest</span></p>
370      <h1><a id="rfc.status" href="#rfc.status">Status of this Memo</a></h1>
371      <p>By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she
372         is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
373         6 of BCP 79.
374      </p>
375      <p>Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note
376         that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
377      </p>
378      <p>Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
379         documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work
380         in progress”.
381      </p>
382      <p>The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
383      </p>
384      <p>The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
385      </p>
386      <p>This Internet-Draft will expire in July 2008.</p>
387      <h1><a id="rfc.copyrightnotice" href="#rfc.copyrightnotice">Copyright Notice</a></h1>
388      <p>Copyright © The IETF Trust (2008). All Rights Reserved.</p>
389      <h1 id="rfc.abstract"><a href="#rfc.abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
390      <p>Recent IESG practice dictates that IETF protocols must specify mandatory-to-implement security mechanisms, so that all conformant
391         implementations share a common baseline. This document examines all widely deployed HTTP security technologies, and analyzes
392         the trade-offs of each.
393      </p>
394      <hr class="noprint">
395      <h1 id="rfc.section.1" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.1">1.</a>&nbsp;Introduction
396      </h1>
397      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.1">Recent IESG practice dictates that IETF protocols are required to specify mandatory to implement security mechanisms. "The
398         IETF Standards Process" <a href="#RFC2026"><cite title="The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3">[RFC2026]</cite></a> does not require that protocols specify mandatory security mechanisms. "Strong Security Requirements for IETF Standard Protocols" <a href="#RFC3365"><cite title="Strong Security Requirements for Internet Engineering Task Force Standard Protocols">[RFC3365]</cite></a> requires that all IETF protocols provide a mechanism for implementors to provide strong security. RFC 3365 does not define
399         the term "strong security".
400      </p>
401      <p id="rfc.section.1.p.2">"Security Mechanisms for the Internet" <a href="#RFC3631"><cite title="Security Mechanisms for the Internet">[RFC3631]</cite></a> is not an IETF procedural RFC, but it is perhaps most relevant. Section 2.2 states:
402      </p>
403      <div id="rfc.figure.u.1"></div><pre>
404   We have evolved in the IETF the notion of "mandatory to implement"
405   mechanisms.  This philosophy evolves from our primary desire to
406   ensure interoperability between different implementations of a
407   protocol.  If a protocol offers many options for how to perform a
408   particular task, but fails to provide for at least one that all
409   must implement, it may be possible that multiple, non-interoperable
410   implementations may result.  This is the consequence of the
411   selection of non-overlapping mechanisms being deployed in the
412   different implementations.
413</pre><p id="rfc.section.1.p.4">This document examines the effects of applying security constraints to Web applications, documents the properties that result
414         from each method, and will make Best Current Practice recommendations for HTTP security in a later document version. At the
415         moment, it is mostly a laundry list of security technologies and tradeoffs.
416      </p>
417      <hr class="noprint">
418      <h1 id="rfc.section.2" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.2">2.</a>&nbsp;Existing HTTP Security Mechanisms
419      </h1>
420      <p id="rfc.section.2.p.1">For HTTP, the IETF generally defines "security mechanisms" as some combination of access authentication and/or a secure transport.</p>
421      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.1">2.1</a>&nbsp;Forms And Cookies
422      </h2>
423      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.1">Almost all HTTP authentication is accomplished through HTML forms, with session keys stored in cookies. For cookies, most
424         implementations rely on the "Netscape specification", which is described loosely in section 10 of "HTTP State Management Mechanism" <a href="#RFC2109"><cite title="HTTP State Management Mechanism">[RFC2109]</cite></a>. The protocol in RFC 2109 is relatively widely implemented, but most clients don't advertise support for it. RFC 2109 was
425         later updated <a href="#RFC2965"><cite title="HTTP State Management Mechanism">[RFC2965]</cite></a>, but the newer version is not widely implemented.
426      </p>
427      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.2">Forms and cookies have number of properties that make them an excellent solution for some implementors. However, many of those
428         properties introduce serious security trade-offs.
429      </p>
430      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.3">HTML forms provide a large degree of control over presentation, which is an imperative for many websites. However, this increases
431         user reliance on the appearance of the interface. Many users do not understand the construction of URIs <a href="#RFC3986"><cite title="Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax">[RFC3986]</cite></a>, or their presentation in common clients [[ CITATION NEEDED ]]. As a result, forms are extremely vulnerable to spoofing.
432      </p>
433      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.4">HTML forms provide acceptable internationalization if used carefully, at the cost of being transmitted as normal HTTP content
434         in all cases (credentials are not differentiated in the protocol).
435      </p>
436      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.5">HTML forms provide a facility for sites to indicate that a password should never be pre-populated. [[ More needed here on
437         autocomplete ]]
438      </p>
439      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.6">The cookies that result from a successful form submission make it unessecary to validate credentials with each HTTP request;
440         this makes cookies an excellent property for scalability. Cookies are susceptible to a large variety of XSS (cross-site scripting)
441         attacks, and measures to prevent such attacks will never be as stringent as necessary for authentication credentials because
442         cookies are used for many purposes. Cookies are also susceptible to a wide variety of attacks from malicious intermediaries
443         and observers. The possible attacks depend on the contents of the cookie data. There is no standard format for most of the
444         data.
445      </p>
446      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.7">HTML forms and cookies provide flexible ways of ending a session from the client.</p>
447      <p id="rfc.section.2.1.p.8">HTML forms require an HTML rendering engine, which many protocols have no use for.</p>
448      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2">2.2</a>&nbsp;HTTP Access Authentication
449      </h2>
450      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.p.1">HTTP 1.1 provides a simple authentication framework, and "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" <a href="#RFC2617"><cite title="HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication">[RFC2617]</cite></a> defines two optional mechanisms. Both of these mechanisms are extremely rarely used in comparison to forms and cookies, but
451         some degree of support for one or both is available in many implementations. Neither scheme provides presentation control,
452         logout capabilities, or interoperable internationalization.
453      </p>
454      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.1"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.1">2.2.1</a>&nbsp;Basic Authentication
455      </h3>
456      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.1">Basic Authentication (normally called just "Basic") transmits usernames and passwords in the clear. It is very easy to implement,
457         but not at all secure unless used over a secure transport.
458      </p>
459      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.2">Basic has very poor scalability properties because credentials must be revalidated with every request, and because secure
460         transports negate many of HTTP's caching mechanisms. Some implementations use cookies in combination with Basic credentials,
461         but there is no standard method of doing so.
462      </p>
463      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.3">Since Basic credentials are clear text, they are reusable by any party. This makes them compatible with any authentication
464         database, at the cost of making the user vulnerable to mismanaged or malicious servers, even over a secure channel.
465      </p>
466      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.1.p.4">Basic is not interoperable when used with credentials that contain characters outside of the ISO 8859-1 repertoire.</p>
467      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.2"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.2">2.2.2</a>&nbsp;Digest Authentication
468      </h3>
469      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.1">In Digest Authentication, the client transmits the results of hashing user credentials with properties of the request and
470         values from the server challenge. Digest is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks when not used over a secure transport.
471      </p>
472      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.2">Digest has some properties that are preferable to Basic and Cookies. Credentials are not immediately reusable by parties that
473         observe or receive them, and session data can be transmitted along side credentials with each request, allowing servers to
474         validate credentials only when absolutely necessary. Authentication data session keys are distinct from other protocol traffic.
475      </p>
476      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.3">Digest includes many modes of operation, but only the simplest modes enjoy any degree of interoperability. For example, most
477         implementations do not implement the mode that provides full message integrity. Additionally, implementation experience has
478         shown that the message integrity mode is impractical because it requires servers to analyze the full request before determining
479         whether the client knows the shared secret.
480      </p>
481      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.4">Digest is extremely susceptible to offline dictionary attacks, making it practical for attackers to perform a namespace walk
482         consisting of a few million passwords [[ CITATION NEEDED ]].
483      </p>
484      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.5">Many of the most widely-deployed HTTP/1.1 clients are not compliant when GET requests include a query string <a href="#Apache_Digest"><cite title="Apache HTTP Server - mod_auth_digest">[Apache_Digest]</cite></a>.
485      </p>
486      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.6">Digest either requires that authentication databases be expressly designed to accomodate it, or requires access to cleartext
487         passwords. As a result, many authentication databases that chose to do the former are incompatible, including the most common
488         method of storing passwords for use with Forms and Cookies.
489      </p>
490      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.7">Many Digest capabilities included to prevent replay attacks expose the server to Denial of Service attacks.</p>
491      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.2.p.8">Digest is not interoperable when used with credentials that contain characters outside of the ISO 8859-1 repertoire.</p>
492      <h3 id="rfc.section.2.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.2.3">2.2.3</a>&nbsp;Other Access Authentication Schemes
493      </h3>
494      <p id="rfc.section.2.2.3.p.1">There are many niche schemes that make use of the HTTP Authentication framework, but very few are well documented. Some are
495         bound to transport layer connections.
496      </p>
497      <h4 id="rfc.section."><a href="#rfc.section."></a>&nbsp;Negotiate (GSS-API) Authentication
498      </h4>
499      <p id="rfc.section.">[[ A discussion about "SPNEGO-based Kerberos and NTLM HTTP Authentication in Microsoft Windows" <a href="#RFC4559"><cite title="SPNEGO-based Kerberos and NTLM HTTP Authentication in Microsoft Windows">[RFC4559]</cite></a> goes here.]]
500      </p>
501      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.3"><a href="#rfc.section.2.3">2.3</a>&nbsp;Centrally-Issued Tickets
502      </h2>
503      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.1">Many large Internet services rely on authentication schemes that center on clients consulting a single service for a time-limited
504         ticket that is validated with undocumented heuristics. Centralized ticket issuing has the advantage that users may employ
505         one set of credentials for many services, and clients don't send credentials to many servers. This approach is often no more
506         than a sophisticated application of forms and cookies.
507      </p>
508      <p id="rfc.section.2.3.p.2">All of the schemes in wide use are proprietary and non-standard, and usually are undocumented. There are many standardization
509         efforts in progress, as usual.
510      </p>
511      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.4"><a href="#rfc.section.2.4">2.4</a>&nbsp;Web Services
512      </h2>
513      <p id="rfc.section.2.4.p.1">Many security properties mentioned in this document have been recast in XML-based protocols, using HTTP as a substitute for
514         TCP. Like the amalgam of HTTP technologies mentioned above, the XML-based protocols are defined by an ever-changing combination
515         of standard and vendor-produced specifications, some of which may be obsoleted at any time <a href="#WS-Pagecount"><cite title="WS-Pagecount">[WS-Pagecount]</cite></a> without any documented change control procedures. These protocols usually don't have much in common with the Architecture
516         of the World Wide Web. It's not clear why term "Web" is used to group them, but they are obviously out of scope for HTTP-based
517         application protocols.
518      </p>
519      <h2 id="rfc.section.2.5"><a href="#rfc.section.2.5">2.5</a>&nbsp;Transport Layer Security
520      </h2>
521      <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.1">[[ A discussion of HTTP over TLS needs to be added here. ]]</p>
522      <p id="rfc.section.2.5.p.2">[[ Discussion of connection confidentiality should be separate from the discussion of access authentication based on mutual
523         authentication with certificates in TLS. ]]
524      </p>
525      <hr class="noprint">
526      <h1 id="rfc.section.3" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.3">3.</a>&nbsp;Revisions To HTTP
527      </h1>
528      <p id="rfc.section.3.p.1">Is is possible that HTTP will be revised in the future. "HTTP/1.1" <a href="#RFC2616"><cite title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1">[RFC2616]</cite></a> and "Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers" <a href="#RFC2145"><cite title="Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers">[RFC2145]</cite></a> define conformance requirements in relation to version numbers. In HTTP 1.1, all authentication mechanisms are optional, and
529         no single transport substrate is specified. Any HTTP revision that adds a mandatory security mechanism or transport substrate
530         will have to increment the HTTP version number appropriately. All widely used schemes are non-standard and/or proprietary.
531      </p>
532      <hr class="noprint">
533      <h1 id="rfc.section.4" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.4">4.</a>&nbsp;Security Considerations
534      </h1>
535      <p id="rfc.section.4.p.1">This entire document is about security considerations.</p>
536      <h1 class="np" id="rfc.references"><a href="#rfc.section.5" id="rfc.section.5">5.</a> Normative References
537      </h1>
538      <table summary="Normative References">
539         <tr>
540            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2026">[RFC2026]</b></td>
541            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Harvard University">Bradner, S.</a>, “<a href="">The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3</a>”, BCP&nbsp;9, RFC&nbsp;2026, October&nbsp;1996.
542            </td>
543         </tr> 
544         <tr>
545            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2109">[RFC2109]</b></td>
546            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies">Kristol, D.M.</a> and <a href="" title="Netscape Communications Corp.">L. Montulli</a>, “<a href="">HTTP State Management Mechanism</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2109, February&nbsp;1997.
547            </td>
548         </tr> 
549         <tr>
550            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2145">[RFC2145]</b></td>
551            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Western Research Laboratory">Mogul, J.C.</a>, <a href="" title="Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.T.</a>, <a href="" title="MIT Laboratory for Computer Science">Gettys, J.</a>, and <a href="" title="W3 Consortium">H.F. Nielsen</a>, “<a href="">Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2145, May&nbsp;1997.
552            </td>
553         </tr> 
554         <tr>
555            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2616">[RFC2616]</b></td>
556            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Department of Information and Computer Science">Fielding, R.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Gettys, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Compaq Computer Corporation">Mogul, J.</a>, <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Frystyk, H.</a>, <a href="" title="Xerox Corporation">Masinter, L.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.</a>, and <a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">T. Berners-Lee</a>, “<a href="">Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2616, June&nbsp;1999.
557            </td>
558         </tr> 
559         <tr>
560            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2617">[RFC2617]</b></td>
561            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Northwestern University, Department of Mathematics">Franks, J.</a>, <a href="" title="Verisign Inc.">Hallam-Baker, P.M.</a>, <a href="" title="AbiSource, Inc.">Hostetler, J.L.</a>, <a href="" title="Agranat Systems, Inc.">Lawrence, S.D.</a>, <a href="" title="Microsoft Corporation">Leach, P.J.</a>, Luotonen, A., and <a href="" title="Open Market, Inc.">L. Stewart</a>, “<a href="">HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2617, June&nbsp;1999.
562            </td>
563         </tr> 
564         <tr>
565            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC2965">[RFC2965]</b></td>
566            <td class="top"><a href="" title="Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies">Kristol, D. M.</a> and <a href="" title=", Inc.">L. Montulli</a>, “<a href="">HTTP State Management Mechanism</a>”, RFC&nbsp;2965, October&nbsp;2000.
567            </td>
568         </tr> 
569         <tr>
570            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3365">[RFC3365]</b></td>
571            <td class="top">Schiller, J., “<a href="">Strong Security Requirements for Internet Engineering Task Force Standard Protocols</a>”, BCP&nbsp;61, RFC&nbsp;3365, August&nbsp;2002.
572            </td>
573         </tr> 
574         <tr>
575            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3631">[RFC3631]</b></td>
576            <td class="top">Bellovin, S., Schiller, J., and C. Kaufman, “<a href="">Security Mechanisms for the Internet</a>”, RFC&nbsp;3631, December&nbsp;2003.
577            </td>
578         </tr> 
579         <tr>
580            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC3986">[RFC3986]</b></td>
581            <td class="top"><a href="" title="World Wide Web Consortium">Berners-Lee, T.</a>, <a href="" title="Day Software">Fielding, R.</a>, and <a href="" title="Adobe Systems Incorporated">L. Masinter</a>, “<a href="">Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax</a>”, STD&nbsp;66, RFC&nbsp;3986, January&nbsp;2005.
582            </td>
583         </tr> 
584         <tr>
585            <td class="reference"><b id="RFC4559">[RFC4559]</b></td>
586            <td class="top">Jaganathan, K., Zhu, L., and J. Brezak, “<a href="">SPNEGO-based Kerberos and NTLM HTTP Authentication in Microsoft Windows</a>”, RFC&nbsp;4559, June&nbsp;2006.
587            </td>
588         </tr> 
589         <tr>
590            <td class="reference"><b id="Apache_Digest">[Apache_Digest]</b></td>
591            <td class="top">Apache Software Foundation, , “<a href="">Apache HTTP Server - mod_auth_digest</a>”, &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
592            </td>
593         </tr> 
594         <tr>
595            <td class="reference"><b id="WS-Pagecount">[WS-Pagecount]</b></td>
596            <td class="top">Bray, T., “<a href="">WS-Pagecount</a>”, September&nbsp;2004, &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
597            </td>
598         </tr>
599      </table>
600      <hr class="noprint">
601      <h1 id="rfc.authors" class="np"><a href="#rfc.authors">Authors' Addresses</a></h1>
602      <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Paul Hoffman</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Hoffman</span><span class="given-name">Paul</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">VPN Consortium</span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href=""><span class="email"></span></a></span></address>
603      <address class="vcard"><span class="vcardline"><span class="fn">Alexey Melnikov</span><span class="n hidden"><span class="family-name">Melnikov</span><span class="given-name">Alexey</span></span></span><span class="org vcardline">Isode Ltd.</span><span class="vcardline">EMail: <a href=""><span class="email"></span></a></span></address>
604      <hr class="noprint">
605      <h1 id="rfc.section.A" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.A">A.</a>&nbsp;Acknowledgements
606      </h1>
607      <p id="rfc.section.A.p.1">Much of the material in this document was written by Rob Sayre, who first promoted the topic.</p>
608      <hr class="noprint">
609      <h1 id="rfc.section.B" class="np"><a href="#rfc.section.B">B.</a>&nbsp;Document History
610      </h1>
611      <p id="rfc.section.B.p.1">[This entire section is to be removed when published as an RFC.]</p>
612      <h2 id="rfc.section.B.1"><a href="#rfc.section.B.1">B.1</a>&nbsp;Changes between draft-sayre-http-security-variance-00 and   draft-ietf-http-security-properties-00
613      </h2>
614      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.1">Changed the authors to Paul Hoffman and Alexey Melnikov, with permission of Rob Sayre.</p>
615      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.2">Made lots of minor editorial changes.</p>
616      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.3">Removed what was section 2 (Requirements Notation), the reference to RFC 2119, and any use of 2119ish all-caps words.</p>
617      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.4">In 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, changed "Latin-1 range" to "ISO 8859-1 repertoire" to match the defintion of "TEXT" in RFC 2616.</p>
618      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.5">Added minor text to the Security Considerations section.</p>
619      <p id="rfc.section.B.1.p.6">Added URLs to the two non-RFC references.</p>
620      <h1><a id="rfc.copyright" href="#rfc.copyright">Full Copyright Statement</a></h1>
621      <p>Copyright © The IETF Trust (2008).</p>
622      <p>This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the
623         authors retain all their rights.
624      </p>
625      <p>This document and the information contained herein are provided on an “AS IS” basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION
629      </p>
630      <hr class="noprint">
631      <h1 class="np"><a id="rfc.ipr" href="#rfc.ipr">Intellectual Property</a></h1>
632      <p>The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might
633         be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any
634         license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to
635         identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and
636         BCP 79.
637      </p>
638      <p>Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result
639         of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users
640         of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at &lt;<a href=""></a>&gt;.
641      </p>
642      <p>The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
643         rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF
644         at <a href=""></a>.
645      </p>
646      <h1>Acknowledgement</h1>
647      <p>Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF Administrative Support Activity (IASA).</p>
648   </body>
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