Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Nov 6, 2016, 11:54:58 AM (3 years ago)
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trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v2 v3  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
     8== Creating an Environment
     9
     10A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     11{{{#!sh
    912$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1013}}}
    1114
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     15`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
    1516
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system. Also, it seems that project names
    21 with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).''
     17=== Useful Tips
    2218
    23 == Database Connection Strings ==
     19 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    2420
    25 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    26 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    27 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    28 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    29 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    30 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     21 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     22 
     23 - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new Trac environment; otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
    3124
    32 === Embedded SQLite Connection String ===
    33 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     25 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     26 
     27 - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication, see [trac:#7163].
     28
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     36}}}
     37
     38== Database Connection Strings
     39
     40Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     41
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     43
     44=== SQLite Connection String
     45
     46The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3447{{{
    3548sqlite:db/trac.db
    3649}}}
     50where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3751
    38 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    39 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    40 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    41 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    42 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     52=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     53
     54If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
    4355{{{
    4456postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4557}}}
    46 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    4758
    48 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     59If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    4960{{{
    5061postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5162}}}
    5263
    53 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    54 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     64On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5565{{{
    5666postgres://user:password@/database
    5767}}}
     68
    5869or a specific one:
    5970{{{
     
    6172}}}
    6273
    63 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    64 `trac-admin initenv`.
     74Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    6575
    6676See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    67 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    68 {{{
    69 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    70 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    71 }}}
    72 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    73 
    74 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    75 {{{
    76 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    77 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     77Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     78{{{#!sh
     79$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     80$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    7881}}}
    7982
    80 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     83When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     84
     85Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     86{{{#!sh
     87$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     88$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     89}}}
     90
     91Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8192{{{
    8293postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    8394}}}
    8495
    85 === MySQL Connection String ===
     96=== MySQL Connection String
    8697
    87 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    88 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    89 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    90 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     98The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    9199{{{
    92100mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    93101}}}
    94102
    95 == Source Code Repository ==
     103== Source Code Repository
    96104
    97 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    98 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
     105Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
    99106
    100 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    101 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
     107In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     108You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded:
     109{{{#!ini
     110[components]
     111trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     112}}}
    102113
    103 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    104 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    105 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    106 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     114For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    107115
    108 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
    109 {{{
     116Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     117{{{#!ini
    110118[trac]
    111119repository_type = svn
     
    114122
    115123The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    116 {{{
     124{{{#!ini
    117125[trac]
    118126repository_type = svn
     
    120128}}}
    121129
    122 == Directory Structure ==
     130== Directory Structure
    123131
    124132An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
    125133
    126134 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    127  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    128  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     135 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     136 * `files`
     137  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    129138 * `conf`
    130    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     139  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
    131140 * `db`
    132    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    133  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    134  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    135  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs, since [milestone:0.10])
    136  * `templates` - Custom ClearSilver environment-specific templates. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    137    * `site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.
    138    * `site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.
    139    * `site_header.cs` - Custom page header.
    140  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    141    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    142  * `wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [WikiMacros Wiki macros]. '''''(0.10 only)'''''
    143 
    144   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    145 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    146 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     141  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     142 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     143 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     144 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     145 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     146  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    147147
    148148----